The “Endless Diving Project-Step 36” took place in the harbor waters of the town of Maratea in Italy in September 2014. The goal of the project was an attempt by an experienced male diver, equipped with a wet 7-mm suit and a normal gas tank, to set the world record-breaking of nonstop underwater performance. We studied inflammatory, hematological, and endocrine responses during the extreme condition of the attempt. Venous blood samples were collected at baseline, the day before the attempt; immediately after the return from underwater; then at Day 1, Day 4, and Day 12; and later at Month 1 and Month 41 of follow-up. We found that there was an increase in the content of blood neutrophils, monocytes, and eosinophils and a decrease in lymphocytes at Day 1 and a late increase in basophils at Day 12 after the dive. Inflammatory markers and hematocrit and hemoglobin increased immediately after the dive, dropped at Day 1, and reverted gradually to the control level from Day 4 to Day 12. Serotonin and dopamine decreased, while adrenaline increased at Day 1, gradually recovering in the days of follow-up. Insulin, luteinizing hormone, growth hormone, and prolactin increased, while testosterone, cortisol, 17- β-estradiol, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and adrenocorticotropic hormone decreased at Day 1, with a partial recovery at Day 4. We conclude that the homeostatic response to the extreme, prolonged underwater performance showed signs of psychological and pro-inflammatory stress. The hormonal response reflected an acute testicular insufficiency. These responses resembled those characteristics for ultra-endurance exercise accompanied by vasculitis and dehydration.

Pathophysiological Responses to a Record-Breaking Multi-hour Underwater Endurance Performance: A Case Study

Vittore Verratti
;
Tiziana Pietrangelo;Danilo Bondi;
2021

Abstract

The “Endless Diving Project-Step 36” took place in the harbor waters of the town of Maratea in Italy in September 2014. The goal of the project was an attempt by an experienced male diver, equipped with a wet 7-mm suit and a normal gas tank, to set the world record-breaking of nonstop underwater performance. We studied inflammatory, hematological, and endocrine responses during the extreme condition of the attempt. Venous blood samples were collected at baseline, the day before the attempt; immediately after the return from underwater; then at Day 1, Day 4, and Day 12; and later at Month 1 and Month 41 of follow-up. We found that there was an increase in the content of blood neutrophils, monocytes, and eosinophils and a decrease in lymphocytes at Day 1 and a late increase in basophils at Day 12 after the dive. Inflammatory markers and hematocrit and hemoglobin increased immediately after the dive, dropped at Day 1, and reverted gradually to the control level from Day 4 to Day 12. Serotonin and dopamine decreased, while adrenaline increased at Day 1, gradually recovering in the days of follow-up. Insulin, luteinizing hormone, growth hormone, and prolactin increased, while testosterone, cortisol, 17- β-estradiol, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and adrenocorticotropic hormone decreased at Day 1, with a partial recovery at Day 4. We conclude that the homeostatic response to the extreme, prolonged underwater performance showed signs of psychological and pro-inflammatory stress. The hormonal response reflected an acute testicular insufficiency. These responses resembled those characteristics for ultra-endurance exercise accompanied by vasculitis and dehydration.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11564/724261
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