Susceptibility to asthma is complex and heterogeneous, as it involves both genetic and environmental insults (pre- and post-birth) acting in a critical window of development in early life. According to the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease, several factors, both harmful and protective, such as nutrition, diseases, drugs, microbiome, and stressors, interact with genotypic variation to change the capacity of the organism to successfully adapt and grow in later life. In this review, we aim to provide the latest evidence about predictive risk and protective factors for developing asthma in different stages of life, from the fetal period to adolescence, in order to develop strategic preventive and therapeutic interventions to predict and improve health later in life. Our study shows that for some risk factors, such as exposure to cigarette smoke, environmental pollutants, and family history of asthma, the evidence in favor of a strong association of those factors with the development of asthma is solid and widely shared. Similarly, the clear benefits of some protective factors were shown, providing new insights into primary prevention. On the contrary, further longitudinal studies are required, as some points in the literature remain controversial and a source of debate.

Time-Specific Factors Influencing the Development of Asthma in Children

Russo, Daniele;Lizzi, Mauro;Chiarelli, Francesco;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Susceptibility to asthma is complex and heterogeneous, as it involves both genetic and environmental insults (pre- and post-birth) acting in a critical window of development in early life. According to the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease, several factors, both harmful and protective, such as nutrition, diseases, drugs, microbiome, and stressors, interact with genotypic variation to change the capacity of the organism to successfully adapt and grow in later life. In this review, we aim to provide the latest evidence about predictive risk and protective factors for developing asthma in different stages of life, from the fetal period to adolescence, in order to develop strategic preventive and therapeutic interventions to predict and improve health later in life. Our study shows that for some risk factors, such as exposure to cigarette smoke, environmental pollutants, and family history of asthma, the evidence in favor of a strong association of those factors with the development of asthma is solid and widely shared. Similarly, the clear benefits of some protective factors were shown, providing new insights into primary prevention. On the contrary, further longitudinal studies are required, as some points in the literature remain controversial and a source of debate.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11564/790434
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