Ageing is a complex process that in muscle in usually associated with a decrease in mass, strength, and velocity of contraction. One of the most striking effects of ageing on muscle is known as sarcopenia, a process that is the result of many cellular changes, such as a reduction in the number of motor units coupled with an increase in motor unit size, progressive denervation, decreased synthesis of myofibrillar components, atrophy due to disuse, accumulation of connective tissue, etc. It has been suggested that sarcopenia may be triggered by reactive oxygen species (ROS) that have accumulated throughout one’s lifetime. ROS, which are generated by the addition of a single electron to the oxygen molecule, are formed in all tissues including muscle fibres and, especially, in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Such reactive elements are usually quite harmful and result in oxidative stress that can damage other cellular components such as DNA, proteins, lipids, etc. resulting in further damage to the cells and tissues. As a consequence, the intra and intercellular membranes of the muscle fibers, in particular those of the Sarcoplasmic reticulum, may be modified and the Ca2+ transport mechanism altered. During the ageing process ROS production may drastically increase because of an altered function of the respiratory chain and an insufficient functioning of the antioxidant cellular defences. How such an oxidative insult plays a role in the age-related decrease of muscle performance and mass has yet to be defined. What does have a clear role in the progression of sarcopenia is the significant reduction of the regenerative potential of muscle fibres. This reduction is due to a reduced pool of satellite cells that are usually recruited to replace damaged fibres and promote their regeneration. Exercise as a method to prevent or at least delay sarcopenia has been discussed in many scientific reports. While on the one hand, it seems clear that exercise is effective in reducing the loss of muscle mass, on the other it appears that physical activity increases both the mechanical damage and the accumulation of free radicals as a result of an increase in the aerobic metabolism of the muscles involved.

The contribution of reactive oxygen species to sarcopenia and muscle ageing

FULLE, Stefania;PROTASI, Feliciano;DI TANO, Guglielmo;PIETRANGELO, Tiziana;BONCOMPAGNI, SIMONA;VECCHIET, Leonardo;FANO' ILLIC', Giorgio
2004-01-01

Abstract

Ageing is a complex process that in muscle in usually associated with a decrease in mass, strength, and velocity of contraction. One of the most striking effects of ageing on muscle is known as sarcopenia, a process that is the result of many cellular changes, such as a reduction in the number of motor units coupled with an increase in motor unit size, progressive denervation, decreased synthesis of myofibrillar components, atrophy due to disuse, accumulation of connective tissue, etc. It has been suggested that sarcopenia may be triggered by reactive oxygen species (ROS) that have accumulated throughout one’s lifetime. ROS, which are generated by the addition of a single electron to the oxygen molecule, are formed in all tissues including muscle fibres and, especially, in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Such reactive elements are usually quite harmful and result in oxidative stress that can damage other cellular components such as DNA, proteins, lipids, etc. resulting in further damage to the cells and tissues. As a consequence, the intra and intercellular membranes of the muscle fibers, in particular those of the Sarcoplasmic reticulum, may be modified and the Ca2+ transport mechanism altered. During the ageing process ROS production may drastically increase because of an altered function of the respiratory chain and an insufficient functioning of the antioxidant cellular defences. How such an oxidative insult plays a role in the age-related decrease of muscle performance and mass has yet to be defined. What does have a clear role in the progression of sarcopenia is the significant reduction of the regenerative potential of muscle fibres. This reduction is due to a reduced pool of satellite cells that are usually recruited to replace damaged fibres and promote their regeneration. Exercise as a method to prevent or at least delay sarcopenia has been discussed in many scientific reports. While on the one hand, it seems clear that exercise is effective in reducing the loss of muscle mass, on the other it appears that physical activity increases both the mechanical damage and the accumulation of free radicals as a result of an increase in the aerobic metabolism of the muscles involved.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11564/119304
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