It is unknown whether lipoprotein tocopherol-mediated peroxidation (TMP) is influenced by peculiar drug physicochemical properties such as hydrophobicity. Thus, we studied the effect of the extremely hydrophobic agent amiodarone on human non-HDL TMP. The drug, albeit devoid of specific radical-scavenging effects, inhibited TMP at therapeutic concentrations and with an efficiency similar to that of the physiological co-antioxidant ascorbic acid, showing indeed an IC(50) of 5microM. A comparable efficiency was observed with human LDL, and with a pure LDL-VLDL mixture. TMP was also inhibited by other hydrophobic cationic amphiphiles without radical-scavenging activity, namely desethylamiodarone, chlorpromazine, clomipramine, promethazine, promazine, verapamil, bromhexine, propranolol, mepivacaine, metoprolol, tramadol and ranitidine, whose anti-TMP potency was far lower than that of amiodarone and related to drug hydrophobicity degree. Further, TMP was strongly inhibited by butylhydroxytoluene, a lipophilic radical scavenger. Hydrophobic acidic (diclofenac, indomethacin, ibuprofen and ketoprofen) or neutral (n-hexane, anthracene, o-xylene and toluene) compounds could not instead inhibit TMP, indicating a stringent requirement for drug basicity in the pharmacological inhibition of TMP. Amiodarone effectiveness was lowered by lipoprotein alpha-tocopherol enrichment, suggesting some drug-alpha-tocopherol interaction and less lipid pharmacological protection at higher alpha-tocopheroxyl radical generation. Drug anti-TMP activity may so be related to electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions with lipoprotein alpha-tocopherol and lipid moiety, resulting in decreased radical phase transfer and lipid propensity to undergo radical-driven peroxidation. In conclusions, primarily drug basicity and then hydrophobicity are solely relevant to TMP inhibition. Amiodarone, at therapeutic concentrations, has anti-TMP properties, which could occur in the clinical setting.

Amiodarone inhibits tocopherol-mediated human lipoprotein peroxidation

LAPENNA, Domenico;PIERDOMENICO, Sante Donato;NERI, Matteo;GIAMBERARDINO, Maria Adele;CUCCURULLO, Franco
2007

Abstract

It is unknown whether lipoprotein tocopherol-mediated peroxidation (TMP) is influenced by peculiar drug physicochemical properties such as hydrophobicity. Thus, we studied the effect of the extremely hydrophobic agent amiodarone on human non-HDL TMP. The drug, albeit devoid of specific radical-scavenging effects, inhibited TMP at therapeutic concentrations and with an efficiency similar to that of the physiological co-antioxidant ascorbic acid, showing indeed an IC(50) of 5microM. A comparable efficiency was observed with human LDL, and with a pure LDL-VLDL mixture. TMP was also inhibited by other hydrophobic cationic amphiphiles without radical-scavenging activity, namely desethylamiodarone, chlorpromazine, clomipramine, promethazine, promazine, verapamil, bromhexine, propranolol, mepivacaine, metoprolol, tramadol and ranitidine, whose anti-TMP potency was far lower than that of amiodarone and related to drug hydrophobicity degree. Further, TMP was strongly inhibited by butylhydroxytoluene, a lipophilic radical scavenger. Hydrophobic acidic (diclofenac, indomethacin, ibuprofen and ketoprofen) or neutral (n-hexane, anthracene, o-xylene and toluene) compounds could not instead inhibit TMP, indicating a stringent requirement for drug basicity in the pharmacological inhibition of TMP. Amiodarone effectiveness was lowered by lipoprotein alpha-tocopherol enrichment, suggesting some drug-alpha-tocopherol interaction and less lipid pharmacological protection at higher alpha-tocopheroxyl radical generation. Drug anti-TMP activity may so be related to electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions with lipoprotein alpha-tocopherol and lipid moiety, resulting in decreased radical phase transfer and lipid propensity to undergo radical-driven peroxidation. In conclusions, primarily drug basicity and then hydrophobicity are solely relevant to TMP inhibition. Amiodarone, at therapeutic concentrations, has anti-TMP properties, which could occur in the clinical setting.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11564/134540
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