The interaction between NPs and immune system has been demonstrated, however, the data available are limited. Among all traits, i.s. hydrophilicity, lipophilicity, catalytic activity, composition, electronic structure, capacity to bind or coat surface species and solubility, the dimension, and consequently the surface area, seems to be the main factor that contribute to the interactions of NPs with biological tissues and immune system in particular. Certain NPs accumulate to regional lymph nodes, where they can be taken up and processed by dendritic cells, interact with self-proteins and, hence, modify their antigenicity and elicit altered immune responses and even autoimmunity. Other NPs may induce allergic sensitization, i.e. allergic contact dermatitis to Pd. In vitro studies demonstrated that NPs can modulate cytokine production toward Th1 (Pl, Pd, Ni, Co) or Th2 (Ti, mw and sw Carbon) production patterns. Some NPs have been linked to allergic sensitization, however, It is unlikely that NPs can act as a hapten inducing a specific IgE production, likely they can act as adjuvant and induce a specific pattern of cytokines, antibody and cells that favor allergic sensitization to environmental allergens. Furthermore, NPs demonstrated pro-inflammatory effects in the lung in experimental animal with increased expression on IL-1beta, MIP-1alpha, MCP-1, MIP-2, keratinocyte chemoattractant, TARC, GM-CSF, MIP-1alpha and activation of the stress-activated MAPKs p38 and JNKs. All considered, the available data suggest that through the elicitation of an oxidative stress mechanism, engineered NPs may contribute to pro-inflammatory disease processes in the lung, particularly allergy.

Immunotoxicity of nanoparticles

DI GIOACCHINO, Mario;PETRARCA, CLAUDIA;DI GIAMPAOLO, LUCA;BOSCOLO, Paolo;MARIANI COSTANTINI, Renato;
2011-01-01

Abstract

The interaction between NPs and immune system has been demonstrated, however, the data available are limited. Among all traits, i.s. hydrophilicity, lipophilicity, catalytic activity, composition, electronic structure, capacity to bind or coat surface species and solubility, the dimension, and consequently the surface area, seems to be the main factor that contribute to the interactions of NPs with biological tissues and immune system in particular. Certain NPs accumulate to regional lymph nodes, where they can be taken up and processed by dendritic cells, interact with self-proteins and, hence, modify their antigenicity and elicit altered immune responses and even autoimmunity. Other NPs may induce allergic sensitization, i.e. allergic contact dermatitis to Pd. In vitro studies demonstrated that NPs can modulate cytokine production toward Th1 (Pl, Pd, Ni, Co) or Th2 (Ti, mw and sw Carbon) production patterns. Some NPs have been linked to allergic sensitization, however, It is unlikely that NPs can act as a hapten inducing a specific IgE production, likely they can act as adjuvant and induce a specific pattern of cytokines, antibody and cells that favor allergic sensitization to environmental allergens. Furthermore, NPs demonstrated pro-inflammatory effects in the lung in experimental animal with increased expression on IL-1beta, MIP-1alpha, MCP-1, MIP-2, keratinocyte chemoattractant, TARC, GM-CSF, MIP-1alpha and activation of the stress-activated MAPKs p38 and JNKs. All considered, the available data suggest that through the elicitation of an oxidative stress mechanism, engineered NPs may contribute to pro-inflammatory disease processes in the lung, particularly allergy.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11564/178882
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 28
  • Scopus 98
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 83
social impact