The inactivation of the homotetrameric cytosolic alcohol dehydrogenase I from Kluyveromyces lactis (KlADH I) by naturally occurring disul␣des, oxidized glutathione, cystine and cystamine, was studied. The inactivation was fully reversed by dithiothreitol. The nicotinamide coenzyme, but not the substrate ethanol, protected KlADH I from inactivation. Gel ␣ltration experiments and SDS-PAGE analysis, also, revealed that enzyme inactivation coincides with inter-subunits disul␣de bond formation which are noticeably enhanced after prolonged oxidation with GSSG. Moreover, oxidized KlADH I, as its reduced state, retained the tetrameric stucture and appears mainly as a dimer under non-reducing SDS-PAGE. Conversely, KlADH I Cys278Ile mutant is unaffected by disul␣des treatment. Therefore, in vitro, KlADH I wild-type could exist in two reversible forms: reduced (active) and oxidized (inactive), in which the Cys278 residues of each tetramer are linked by disul␣de bonds. The redox state of KlADH I could represent the path for modulating its activity and then a regulatory step of glycolysis under hypoxic conditions. It might be hypothesized that KlADH I could represent an important target in redox signaling of Kluyveromyces lactis cell by inhibiting, under oxidative stress, the glycolytic pathway in favor of the pentose-phosphate shunt to restore its reducing potential.
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