Cranio-facial osteomas are frequent in the nasal and paranasal sinuses, particularly in fronto-ethmoidal sites; other sinus cavities are more rarely affected. Although various theories (embryogenetic, traumatic and inflammatory) have been advanced to explain the pathogenesis, it is difficult to establish a specific cause-effect relationship. Nasal and paranasal osteomas are generally asymptomatic and are diagnosed on the basis of X-rays performed for other conditions, the onset of sinusitis-like symptoms or the appearance of complications due to sinus diseases. These cases require surgical removal to avoid the risk of short- or long-term complications or to solve any that may already exist. Herein, a rare case of osteoma of the maxillary sinus is described and the possible aetiopathogenetic role of traumatic and inflammatory factors described. The main clinical and therapeutic data concerning this lesion are examined.
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