We have previously found that phenantrenic opioids, such as heroin or naltrexone, modulate morphine glucuronidation in the rat. Here we further investigated the effects of phenantrenic opioids on morphine glucuronidation comparing the effects of codeine and heroin. In particular, we measured the synthesis of morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) from morphine: in the liver microsomal preparations obtained from rats repeatedly treated with two different doses of codeine (ex vivo study); in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes previously incubated for 72h with codeine, or heroin (in vitro study); in the latter conditions, the levels of expression of genes coding for uridine-5'-diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) A1, A6, A7 and 2B1 were also determined; finally, the levels of glucuronic acid in rat hepatocytes previously incubated for 72h with codeine or heroin were assessed. The ex vivo study shows that codeine exposure in vivo stimulated liver microsomal M3G formation and de novo synthesis of M6G. Differently, in primary hepatocyte cultures both codeine and heroin inhibited M3G formation, whereas heroin only stimulated de novo synthesis of M6G; moreover, codeine significantly reduced UGT2B1 expression at 6h and caused a trend toward inhibition of UGT1A1 expression at 72h; heroin enhanced UGT2B1 expression and inhibited that of UGT1A1 at 72h; finally, both codeine and heroin depleted UDPGA content of hepatocytes. In conclusion, codeine affects liver glucuronidation of morphine enlightening the possible contribution of changes in the spectrum of UGT gene expression and co-factor synthesis in this phenomenon.

Repeated exposure to codeine alters morphine glucuronidation by affecting UGT gene expression in the rat.

DOVIZIO, MELANIA;PATRIGNANI, Paola;
2012

Abstract

We have previously found that phenantrenic opioids, such as heroin or naltrexone, modulate morphine glucuronidation in the rat. Here we further investigated the effects of phenantrenic opioids on morphine glucuronidation comparing the effects of codeine and heroin. In particular, we measured the synthesis of morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) from morphine: in the liver microsomal preparations obtained from rats repeatedly treated with two different doses of codeine (ex vivo study); in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes previously incubated for 72h with codeine, or heroin (in vitro study); in the latter conditions, the levels of expression of genes coding for uridine-5'-diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) A1, A6, A7 and 2B1 were also determined; finally, the levels of glucuronic acid in rat hepatocytes previously incubated for 72h with codeine or heroin were assessed. The ex vivo study shows that codeine exposure in vivo stimulated liver microsomal M3G formation and de novo synthesis of M6G. Differently, in primary hepatocyte cultures both codeine and heroin inhibited M3G formation, whereas heroin only stimulated de novo synthesis of M6G; moreover, codeine significantly reduced UGT2B1 expression at 6h and caused a trend toward inhibition of UGT1A1 expression at 72h; heroin enhanced UGT2B1 expression and inhibited that of UGT1A1 at 72h; finally, both codeine and heroin depleted UDPGA content of hepatocytes. In conclusion, codeine affects liver glucuronidation of morphine enlightening the possible contribution of changes in the spectrum of UGT gene expression and co-factor synthesis in this phenomenon.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11564/363496
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