Pericarditis may recur in up to 30 % of adult patients, but recurrent pericarditis is a rare disease in childhood. The etiology of the initial attack and the causes of recurrences often remain unknown. Recurrent pericarditis is accompanied by a high morbidity rate and may represent a challenge to the clinician due to problems in management. Therapeutic strategies are not specific and include nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs, colchicine, and pericardiectomy. Controlled trials have demonstrated that colchicine can reduce the recurrent rate of pericarditis, whereas early corticosteroid therapy promotes recurrences. Anakinra, a recombinant human interleukin-1β receptor antagonist, is a promising new biologic agent for the treatment of autoinflammatory diseases such as cryopyrinopathies, tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome, and hyperimmunoglobulinemia D with periodic fever syndrome. This report describes an 11-year-old boy successfully treated with anakinra for a steroid-dependent recurrent pericarditis unresponsive to conventional treatment. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York.
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