Background: Mice lacking calsequestrin-1 (CASQ1-null), a Ca2+-binding protein that modulates the activity of Ca2+ release in the skeletal muscle, exhibit lethal hypermetabolic episodes that resemble malignant hyperthermia in humans when exposed to halothane or heat stress. Methods: Because oxidative species may play a critical role in malignant hyperthermia crises, we treated CASQ1-null mice with two antioxidants, N-acetylcysteine (NAC, Sigma-Aldrich, Italy; provided ad libitum in drinking water) and (±)-6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox, Sigma-Aldrich; administered by intraperitoneal injection), before exposure to halothane (2%, 1 h) or heat (41°C, 1 h). Results: NAC and Trolox significantly protected CASQ1-null mice from lethal episodes, with mortality being 79% (n = 14), 25% (n = 16), and 20% (n = 5) during halothane exposure and 86% (n = 21), 29% (n = 21), and 33% (n = 6) during heat stress in untreated, NAC-treated, and Trolox-treated mice, respectively. During heat challenge, an increase in core temperature in CASQ1-null mice (42.3° ± 0.1°C, n=10) was significantly reduced by both NAC and Trolox (40.6° ± 0.3°C, n = 6 and 40.5° ± 0.2°C, n = 6). NAC treatment of CASQ1-null muscles/mice normalized caffeine sensitivity during in vitro contracture tests, Ca2+ transients in single fibers, and significantly reduced the percentage of fibers undergoing rhabdomyolysis (37.6 ± 2.5%, 38/101 fibers in 3 mice; 11.6 ± 1.1%, 21/186 fibers in 5 mice). Te protective effect of antioxidant treatment likely resulted from mitigation of oxidative stress, because NAC reduced mitochondrial superoxide production, superoxide dismutase type-1 expression, and 3-nitrotyrosine expression, and increased both reduced glutathione and reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio. Conclusion: Tese studies provide a deeper understanding of the mechanisms that underlie hyperthermic crises in CASQ1-deficient muscle and demonstrate that antioxidant pretreatment may prevent them.

Antioxidants protect calsequestrin-1 knockout mice from halothane- and heat-induced sudden death

MICHELUCCI, ANTONIO
Primo
;
PAOLINI, CECILIA
Secondo
;
PIETRANGELO, LAURA;DE MARCO, ALESSANDRO;PROTASI, Feliciano
Ultimo
2015

Abstract

Background: Mice lacking calsequestrin-1 (CASQ1-null), a Ca2+-binding protein that modulates the activity of Ca2+ release in the skeletal muscle, exhibit lethal hypermetabolic episodes that resemble malignant hyperthermia in humans when exposed to halothane or heat stress. Methods: Because oxidative species may play a critical role in malignant hyperthermia crises, we treated CASQ1-null mice with two antioxidants, N-acetylcysteine (NAC, Sigma-Aldrich, Italy; provided ad libitum in drinking water) and (±)-6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox, Sigma-Aldrich; administered by intraperitoneal injection), before exposure to halothane (2%, 1 h) or heat (41°C, 1 h). Results: NAC and Trolox significantly protected CASQ1-null mice from lethal episodes, with mortality being 79% (n = 14), 25% (n = 16), and 20% (n = 5) during halothane exposure and 86% (n = 21), 29% (n = 21), and 33% (n = 6) during heat stress in untreated, NAC-treated, and Trolox-treated mice, respectively. During heat challenge, an increase in core temperature in CASQ1-null mice (42.3° ± 0.1°C, n=10) was significantly reduced by both NAC and Trolox (40.6° ± 0.3°C, n = 6 and 40.5° ± 0.2°C, n = 6). NAC treatment of CASQ1-null muscles/mice normalized caffeine sensitivity during in vitro contracture tests, Ca2+ transients in single fibers, and significantly reduced the percentage of fibers undergoing rhabdomyolysis (37.6 ± 2.5%, 38/101 fibers in 3 mice; 11.6 ± 1.1%, 21/186 fibers in 5 mice). Te protective effect of antioxidant treatment likely resulted from mitigation of oxidative stress, because NAC reduced mitochondrial superoxide production, superoxide dismutase type-1 expression, and 3-nitrotyrosine expression, and increased both reduced glutathione and reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio. Conclusion: Tese studies provide a deeper understanding of the mechanisms that underlie hyperthermic crises in CASQ1-deficient muscle and demonstrate that antioxidant pretreatment may prevent them.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11564/642254
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