Several studies have focused on the relationship between hormonal changes and affective states in sporting contexts relating to an agonistic outcome. More recently, pro-inflammatory cytokines have also been successfully associated with affective state modulation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether athletes who won or lost show different levels of steroid hormones (testosterone and cortisol), pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β, or expressions of anger and anxiety during six training fights in seasonal competitions down to the main seasonal competition. In 25 male kick-boxing athletes (age±SD, 28.68±5.34), anger states (RS score) and anxiety states (AS score) were assessed by STAXI-2 and STAI-Y, respectively. Cortisol (C), testosterone (T) and IL-1β salivary levels were measured by the ELISA method. The saliva samples were taken in the afternoon, 30min prior to the start and 30min from the end of both simulated and official competitions. The results showed that the RS score, T, T/C ratio salivary levels increased during the season, whereas the AS score, C and IL-1β suggested an opposite trend. Close to an official competition, the RS score, T, T/C ratio and IL-1β salivary concentrations were significantly higher, and then decreased during competition. By contrast, the AS score and C levels significantly increased throughout the official competition. In addition, significant differences were found for hormones and IL-1β concentrations as well as psychometric assessment close to the outcome of an official match. Athletes who lost showed an higher AS score and C level, while those who won were characterized by an higher level during the pre-competition RS score, T, T/C ratio, and IL-1β. Note that these factors were positively and significantly correlated at the pre-official competition time, while in a linear regression analysis, IL-1β, T and T/C ratio concentrations explained 43% of the variance in the RS score observed at the same time (adjusted R(2)=0.43, ANOVA P<.05). Our data suggest that the beginning of an agonistic event could trigger emotional responses which correspond to different biological processes instead that of a simulated fight. In particular, IL-1β could be a potential new biological marker of anger and the combined measurement of these factors may be a useful way of understanding athletes' change in relation to their performance.

Emotions, immunity and sport: Winner and loser athlete's profile of fighting sport

Pesce, M
Primo
;
La Fratta, I
Secondo
;
Ialenti, V;Patruno, A;Ferrone, A;Franceschelli, S;Rizzuto, A;Speranza, L;Felaco, M
Penultimo
;
Grilli, A
Ultimo
2015-01-01

Abstract

Several studies have focused on the relationship between hormonal changes and affective states in sporting contexts relating to an agonistic outcome. More recently, pro-inflammatory cytokines have also been successfully associated with affective state modulation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether athletes who won or lost show different levels of steroid hormones (testosterone and cortisol), pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β, or expressions of anger and anxiety during six training fights in seasonal competitions down to the main seasonal competition. In 25 male kick-boxing athletes (age±SD, 28.68±5.34), anger states (RS score) and anxiety states (AS score) were assessed by STAXI-2 and STAI-Y, respectively. Cortisol (C), testosterone (T) and IL-1β salivary levels were measured by the ELISA method. The saliva samples were taken in the afternoon, 30min prior to the start and 30min from the end of both simulated and official competitions. The results showed that the RS score, T, T/C ratio salivary levels increased during the season, whereas the AS score, C and IL-1β suggested an opposite trend. Close to an official competition, the RS score, T, T/C ratio and IL-1β salivary concentrations were significantly higher, and then decreased during competition. By contrast, the AS score and C levels significantly increased throughout the official competition. In addition, significant differences were found for hormones and IL-1β concentrations as well as psychometric assessment close to the outcome of an official match. Athletes who lost showed an higher AS score and C level, while those who won were characterized by an higher level during the pre-competition RS score, T, T/C ratio, and IL-1β. Note that these factors were positively and significantly correlated at the pre-official competition time, while in a linear regression analysis, IL-1β, T and T/C ratio concentrations explained 43% of the variance in the RS score observed at the same time (adjusted R(2)=0.43, ANOVA P<.05). Our data suggest that the beginning of an agonistic event could trigger emotional responses which correspond to different biological processes instead that of a simulated fight. In particular, IL-1β could be a potential new biological marker of anger and the combined measurement of these factors may be a useful way of understanding athletes' change in relation to their performance.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11564/656347
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