OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of palladium (Pd) nanoparticles on cytokine release from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of control or Pd-sensitized nonatopic women. METHODS: TNF-α, IL-5, IL-10 and IFN-γ release and/or expression from PBMCs incubated in presence of 5 to 10 nm Pd nanoparticles or Pd salt (potassium hexachloropalladate) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Transmission electronmicroscopy was performed. RESULTS: In lipopolysaccharide-stimulated PBMCs from controls, Pd salt inhibited IFN-γ and IL-10 release, whereas Pd nanoparticles enhanced IFN-γ release and inhibited TNF-α secretion. In lipopolysaccharide-stimulated PBMCs from Pd-sensitized women showing high IFN-γ release, Pd nanoparticles inhibited TNF-α release and Pd salt IL-10 release. TNF-α and IFN-γ release and messenger RNA expression were correlated. Transmission electronmicroscopy demonstrated uptake of nanoparticles in the endocytic compartment and activation of autophagy.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.