The paper presents data on primary carbonate–silicate melt inclusions hosted in diopside phenocrysts from kalsilite melilitite of Cupaello volcano in Central Italy. The melt inclusions are partly crystalline and contain kalsilite, phlogopite, pectolite, combeite, calcite, Ba–Sr carbonate, baryte, halite, apatite, residual glass, and a gas phase. Daughter pectolite and combeite identified in the inclusions are the first finds of these minerals in kamafugite rocks from central Italy. Our detailed data on the melt inclusions in minerals indicate that the diopside phenocrysts crystallized at 1170–1190°C from a homogeneous melilitite magma enriched in volatile components (CO2, 0.5–0.6 wt % H2O, and 0.1–0.2 wt % F). In the process of crystallization at the small variation in P-T parameters two-phase silicate-carbonate liquid immiscibility occurred at lower temperatures (below 1080–1150°C), when spatially separated melilitite silicate and Sr-Ba-rich alkalicarbonate melts already existed. The silicate–carbonate immiscibility was definitely responsible for the formation of the carbonatite tuff at the volcano. The melilitite melt was rich in incompatible elements, first of all, LILE and LREE. This specific enrichment of the melt in these elements and the previously established high isotopic ratios are common to all Italian kamafugites and seem to be related to the specific ITEM mantle source, which underwent metasomatism and enrichment in incompatible elements.
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