Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), a crucial enzyme in purine metabolism which converts ribonucleosides into purine bases, has mainly been found inside glial cells. Since we recently demonstrated that PNP is released from rat C6 glioma cells, we then wondered whether this occurs in normal brain cells. Using rat primary cultures of microglia, astrocytes and cerebellar granule neurons, we found that in basal condition all these cells constitutively released a metabolically active PNP with Km values very similar to those measured in C6 glioma cells. However, the enzyme expression/release was greater in microglia or astrocytes that in neurons. Moreover, we exposed primary brain cell cultures to pro-inflammatory agents such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or ATP alone or in combination. LPS alone caused an increased interleukin-1β (IL-1β) secretion mainly from microglia and no modification in the PNP release, even from neurons in which it enhanced cell death. In contrast, ATP administered alone to glial cells at high micromolar concentrations significantly stimulated the release of PNP within 1 h, an effect not modified by LPS presence, whereas IL-1β secretion was stimulated by ATP only in cells primed for 2 h with LPS. In both cases ATP effect was mediated by P2X7 receptor (P2X7R), since it was mimicked by cell exposure to Bz-ATP, an agonist of P2X7R, and blocked by cell pre-treatment with the P2X7R antagonist A438079. Interestingly, ATP-induced PNP release from glial cells partly occurred through the secretion of lysosomal vesicles in the extracellular medium. Thus, during inflammatory cerebral events PNP secretion promoted by extracellular ATP accumulation might concur to control extracellular purine signals. Further studies could elucidate whether, in these conditions, a consensual activity of enzymes downstream of PNP in the purine metabolic cascade avoids accumulation of extracellular purine bases that might concur to brain injury by unusual formation of reactive oxygen species.

Release of soluble and vesicular purine nucleoside phosphorylase from rat astrocytes and microglia induced by pro-inflammatory stimulation with extracellular ATP via P2X7 receptors

GIULIANI, Patricia;ZUCCARINI, MARIACHIARA;CICCARELLI, Renata
;
DI IORIO, Patrizia;CACIAGLI, Francesco
2018-01-01

Abstract

Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), a crucial enzyme in purine metabolism which converts ribonucleosides into purine bases, has mainly been found inside glial cells. Since we recently demonstrated that PNP is released from rat C6 glioma cells, we then wondered whether this occurs in normal brain cells. Using rat primary cultures of microglia, astrocytes and cerebellar granule neurons, we found that in basal condition all these cells constitutively released a metabolically active PNP with Km values very similar to those measured in C6 glioma cells. However, the enzyme expression/release was greater in microglia or astrocytes that in neurons. Moreover, we exposed primary brain cell cultures to pro-inflammatory agents such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or ATP alone or in combination. LPS alone caused an increased interleukin-1β (IL-1β) secretion mainly from microglia and no modification in the PNP release, even from neurons in which it enhanced cell death. In contrast, ATP administered alone to glial cells at high micromolar concentrations significantly stimulated the release of PNP within 1 h, an effect not modified by LPS presence, whereas IL-1β secretion was stimulated by ATP only in cells primed for 2 h with LPS. In both cases ATP effect was mediated by P2X7 receptor (P2X7R), since it was mimicked by cell exposure to Bz-ATP, an agonist of P2X7R, and blocked by cell pre-treatment with the P2X7R antagonist A438079. Interestingly, ATP-induced PNP release from glial cells partly occurred through the secretion of lysosomal vesicles in the extracellular medium. Thus, during inflammatory cerebral events PNP secretion promoted by extracellular ATP accumulation might concur to control extracellular purine signals. Further studies could elucidate whether, in these conditions, a consensual activity of enzymes downstream of PNP in the purine metabolic cascade avoids accumulation of extracellular purine bases that might concur to brain injury by unusual formation of reactive oxygen species.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11564/681782
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