BACKGROUND: Since hypercoagulability might result in recurrent miscarriage, anticoagulant agents could potentially increase the chance of live birth in subsequent pregnancies in women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage, with or without inherited thrombophilia. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of anticoagulant agents, such as aspirin and heparin, in women with a history of at least two unexplained miscarriages with or without inherited thrombophilia. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (1 October 2013) and scanned bibliographies of all located articles for any unidentified articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials that assessed the effect of anticoagulant treatment on live birth in women with a history of at least two unexplained miscarriages with or without inherited thrombophilia were eligible. Interventions included aspirin, unfractionated heparin (UFH), and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) for the prevention of miscarriage. One treatment could be compared with another or with no-treatment (or placebo). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors (PJ and SK) assessed the studies for inclusion in the review and extracted the data. If necessary they contacted study authors for more information. We double checked the data. MAIN RESULTS: Nine studies, including data of 1228 women, were included in the review evaluating the effect of either LMWH (enoxaparin or nadroparin in varying doses) or aspirin or a combination of both, on the chance of live birth in women with recurrent miscarriage, with or without inherited thrombophilia. Studies were heterogeneous with regard to study design and treatment regimen and three studies were considered to be at high risk of bias. Two of these three studies at high risk of bias showed a benefit of one treatment over the other, but in sensitivity analyses (in which studies at high risk of bias were excluded) anticoagulants did not have a beneficial effect on live birth, regardless of which anticoagulant was evaluated (risk ratio (RR) for live birth in women who received aspirin compared to placebo 0.94, (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80 to 1.11, n = 256), in women who received LMWH compared to aspirin RR 1.08 (95% CI 0.93 to 1.26, n = 239), and in women who received LMWH and aspirin compared to no-treatment RR 1.01 (95% CI 0.87 to 1.16) n = 322).Obstetric complications such as preterm delivery, pre-eclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction and congenital malformations were not significantly affected by any treatment regimen. In included studies, aspirin did not increase the risk of bleeding, but treatment with LWMH and aspirin increased the risk of bleeding significantly in one study. Local skin reactions (pain, itching, swelling) to injection of LMWH were reported in almost 40% of patients in the same study.

Aspirin and/or heparin for women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage with or without inherited thrombophilia

Di Nisio, Marcello;
2014-01-01

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Since hypercoagulability might result in recurrent miscarriage, anticoagulant agents could potentially increase the chance of live birth in subsequent pregnancies in women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage, with or without inherited thrombophilia. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of anticoagulant agents, such as aspirin and heparin, in women with a history of at least two unexplained miscarriages with or without inherited thrombophilia. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (1 October 2013) and scanned bibliographies of all located articles for any unidentified articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials that assessed the effect of anticoagulant treatment on live birth in women with a history of at least two unexplained miscarriages with or without inherited thrombophilia were eligible. Interventions included aspirin, unfractionated heparin (UFH), and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) for the prevention of miscarriage. One treatment could be compared with another or with no-treatment (or placebo). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors (PJ and SK) assessed the studies for inclusion in the review and extracted the data. If necessary they contacted study authors for more information. We double checked the data. MAIN RESULTS: Nine studies, including data of 1228 women, were included in the review evaluating the effect of either LMWH (enoxaparin or nadroparin in varying doses) or aspirin or a combination of both, on the chance of live birth in women with recurrent miscarriage, with or without inherited thrombophilia. Studies were heterogeneous with regard to study design and treatment regimen and three studies were considered to be at high risk of bias. Two of these three studies at high risk of bias showed a benefit of one treatment over the other, but in sensitivity analyses (in which studies at high risk of bias were excluded) anticoagulants did not have a beneficial effect on live birth, regardless of which anticoagulant was evaluated (risk ratio (RR) for live birth in women who received aspirin compared to placebo 0.94, (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80 to 1.11, n = 256), in women who received LMWH compared to aspirin RR 1.08 (95% CI 0.93 to 1.26, n = 239), and in women who received LMWH and aspirin compared to no-treatment RR 1.01 (95% CI 0.87 to 1.16) n = 322).Obstetric complications such as preterm delivery, pre-eclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction and congenital malformations were not significantly affected by any treatment regimen. In included studies, aspirin did not increase the risk of bleeding, but treatment with LWMH and aspirin increased the risk of bleeding significantly in one study. Local skin reactions (pain, itching, swelling) to injection of LMWH were reported in almost 40% of patients in the same study.
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
2014-deJong-Cochrane-2014.pdf

Solo gestori archivio

Tipologia: Documento in Post-print
Dimensione 445.17 kB
Formato Adobe PDF
445.17 kB Adobe PDF   Visualizza/Apri   Richiedi una copia

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11564/681950
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 36
  • Scopus 126
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 109
social impact