The periextubation period represents a crucial moment in the management of critically ill patients. Extubation failure, defined as the need for reintubation within 2–7 days after a planned extubation, is associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation, increased incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia, longer intensive care unit and hospital stays, and increased mortality. Conventional oxygen therapy is commonly used after extubation. Additional methods of non-invasive respiratory support, such as non-invasive ventilation and high-flow nasal therapy, can be used to avoid reintubation. The aim of this Review is to describe the pathophysiological mechanisms of postextubation respiratory failure and the available techniques and strategies of respiratory support to avoid reintubation. We summarise and discuss the available evidence supporting the use of these strategies to achieve a tailored therapy for an individual patient at the bedside.

Ventilatory support after extubation in critically ill patients

Maggiore, Salvatore Maurizio
;
Battilana, Mariangela;Serano, Luca;Petrini, Flavia
2018

Abstract

The periextubation period represents a crucial moment in the management of critically ill patients. Extubation failure, defined as the need for reintubation within 2–7 days after a planned extubation, is associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation, increased incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia, longer intensive care unit and hospital stays, and increased mortality. Conventional oxygen therapy is commonly used after extubation. Additional methods of non-invasive respiratory support, such as non-invasive ventilation and high-flow nasal therapy, can be used to avoid reintubation. The aim of this Review is to describe the pathophysiological mechanisms of postextubation respiratory failure and the available techniques and strategies of respiratory support to avoid reintubation. We summarise and discuss the available evidence supporting the use of these strategies to achieve a tailored therapy for an individual patient at the bedside.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11564/698191
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