The genus Scrophularia has received much interest with regards to its traditional uses against eczema, psoriasis, and mastitis. Yet, the medicinal properties of some species still need to be scientifically validated. The present study was designed to investigate into the biological properties of various solvent extracts (ethyl acetate, methanol, and aqueous) of the roots and aerial parts of Scrophularia lucida based on its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and enzyme inhibitory activities together with phytochemical screening. Our results revealed that the solvent extracts differed in their biological effectiveness. The root ethyl acetate extract showed the highest ABTS scavenging, FRAP, CUPRAC, and inhibitory activity against AChE and α-glucosidase. The ethyl acetate extract of the aerial parts displayed the highest BChE and α-amylase inhibition and antioxidant effect in the phosphomolybdenum assay, while the methanol extracts of both parts were the most effective DPPH• scavengers and tyrosinase inhibitors. The methanol extracts of the root and aerial parts also inhibited NO production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine leukemic monocyte-macrophage cell (4.99% and 10.77%, respectively), at 31.25 μg/mL concentration. The highest TPC (34.98 mg GAE/g extract) and TFC (48.33 mg RE/g extract) were observed in the ethyl acetate extract of the root and aerial parts, respectively. The most abundant compounds in the root ethyl acetate extract were luteolin (852 μg/g extract), rosmarinic acid (522 μg/g extract), and hesperidin (394 μg/g extract) while kaempferol was most abundant in the ethyl acetate extract of the aerial parts (628 μg/g extract). In silico experiments were conducted on tyrosinase and the higher docking values were observed for rosmarinic acid and hesperidin. The present findings provide base line information which tend to support the potential use of S. lucida in the management of several chronic diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and diabetes mellitus.

Scrophularia lucida L. as a valuable source of bioactive compounds for pharmaceutical applications: In vitro antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, enzyme inhibitory properties, in silico studies, and HPLC profiles

Stefanucci, Azzurra;Mollica, Adriano;
2019

Abstract

The genus Scrophularia has received much interest with regards to its traditional uses against eczema, psoriasis, and mastitis. Yet, the medicinal properties of some species still need to be scientifically validated. The present study was designed to investigate into the biological properties of various solvent extracts (ethyl acetate, methanol, and aqueous) of the roots and aerial parts of Scrophularia lucida based on its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and enzyme inhibitory activities together with phytochemical screening. Our results revealed that the solvent extracts differed in their biological effectiveness. The root ethyl acetate extract showed the highest ABTS scavenging, FRAP, CUPRAC, and inhibitory activity against AChE and α-glucosidase. The ethyl acetate extract of the aerial parts displayed the highest BChE and α-amylase inhibition and antioxidant effect in the phosphomolybdenum assay, while the methanol extracts of both parts were the most effective DPPH• scavengers and tyrosinase inhibitors. The methanol extracts of the root and aerial parts also inhibited NO production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine leukemic monocyte-macrophage cell (4.99% and 10.77%, respectively), at 31.25 μg/mL concentration. The highest TPC (34.98 mg GAE/g extract) and TFC (48.33 mg RE/g extract) were observed in the ethyl acetate extract of the root and aerial parts, respectively. The most abundant compounds in the root ethyl acetate extract were luteolin (852 μg/g extract), rosmarinic acid (522 μg/g extract), and hesperidin (394 μg/g extract) while kaempferol was most abundant in the ethyl acetate extract of the aerial parts (628 μg/g extract). In silico experiments were conducted on tyrosinase and the higher docking values were observed for rosmarinic acid and hesperidin. The present findings provide base line information which tend to support the potential use of S. lucida in the management of several chronic diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and diabetes mellitus.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11564/702193
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