The cDNA for human beta-arrestin-1 was cloned by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and identified based on its remarkably high amino acid identity (98.6%) with the bovine sequence. Two alternatively spliced isoforms of human beta-arrestin-1, differing only in the presence or absence of 24 base pairs/8 amino acids within the sequence, were identified and called beta-arrestin-1A and beta-arrestin-1B, respectively. Both isoforms were found in all tissues tested. Southern blot analysis revealed the existence of a single gene for beta-arrestin-1, suggesting that the two isoforms are generated by alternative mRNA splicing. The possible presence of similar isoforms was investigated for the other members of the arrestin/beta-arrestin gene family by PCR. Two isoforms of arrestin were revealed in bovine peripheral blood leukocytes. The expression of beta-arrestin-1 was studied in several human tissues and cell types. High levels of beta-arrestin-1 mRNA and immunoreactivity were found in peripheral blood leukocytes. The possible regulation of the expression of beta-arrestin-1 was also investigated. Our work documents for the first time that the expression of beta-arrestin-1 is modulated by intracellular cAMP. Using two cell types, human endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells, we found that 6-8-h treatments with the cAMP-inducing agents cholera toxin, forskolin, iloprost, and isoproterenol raised beta-arrestin-1 mRNA by 2-4-fold. Forskolin preferentially increased beta-arrestin-1A expression in smooth muscle cells, as assessed by PCR. beta-Arrestin-1 immunoreactivity was 2-3-fold higher in smooth muscle cells exposed to forskolin for 8 h, compared with untreated controls. We conclude that (i) the finding of alternatively spliced isoforms of beta-arrestin-1 and arrestin documents a novel mechanism to generate diversity within the arrestin/beta-arrestin gene family; (ii) the abundant expression of beta-arrestin-1 in peripheral blood leukocytes further supports our previous suggestion of a major role for the beta ARK/beta-arrestin system in regulating receptor-mediated immune functions; (iii) the increased expression of beta-arrestin-1 by cAMP suggests a new mechanism for the regulation of receptor-mediated responses.

Molecular analysis of human beta-arrestin-1: cloning, tissue distribution, and regulation of expression. Identification of two isoforms generated by alternative splicing

Sallese M.;Ambrosini G.;
1993

Abstract

The cDNA for human beta-arrestin-1 was cloned by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and identified based on its remarkably high amino acid identity (98.6%) with the bovine sequence. Two alternatively spliced isoforms of human beta-arrestin-1, differing only in the presence or absence of 24 base pairs/8 amino acids within the sequence, were identified and called beta-arrestin-1A and beta-arrestin-1B, respectively. Both isoforms were found in all tissues tested. Southern blot analysis revealed the existence of a single gene for beta-arrestin-1, suggesting that the two isoforms are generated by alternative mRNA splicing. The possible presence of similar isoforms was investigated for the other members of the arrestin/beta-arrestin gene family by PCR. Two isoforms of arrestin were revealed in bovine peripheral blood leukocytes. The expression of beta-arrestin-1 was studied in several human tissues and cell types. High levels of beta-arrestin-1 mRNA and immunoreactivity were found in peripheral blood leukocytes. The possible regulation of the expression of beta-arrestin-1 was also investigated. Our work documents for the first time that the expression of beta-arrestin-1 is modulated by intracellular cAMP. Using two cell types, human endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells, we found that 6-8-h treatments with the cAMP-inducing agents cholera toxin, forskolin, iloprost, and isoproterenol raised beta-arrestin-1 mRNA by 2-4-fold. Forskolin preferentially increased beta-arrestin-1A expression in smooth muscle cells, as assessed by PCR. beta-Arrestin-1 immunoreactivity was 2-3-fold higher in smooth muscle cells exposed to forskolin for 8 h, compared with untreated controls. We conclude that (i) the finding of alternatively spliced isoforms of beta-arrestin-1 and arrestin documents a novel mechanism to generate diversity within the arrestin/beta-arrestin gene family; (ii) the abundant expression of beta-arrestin-1 in peripheral blood leukocytes further supports our previous suggestion of a major role for the beta ARK/beta-arrestin system in regulating receptor-mediated immune functions; (iii) the increased expression of beta-arrestin-1 by cAMP suggests a new mechanism for the regulation of receptor-mediated responses.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11564/706451
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 23
  • Scopus 95
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 101
social impact