PURPOSE: To evaluate the vitreous concentration of different nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) after topical administration and the related prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels in patients undergoing pars plana vitrectomy. METHODS: A prospective, randomized, investigator-masked study was performed. One hundred four patients scheduled for a pars plana vitrectomy for an epiretinal membrane or a macular hole were randomized to receive topical diclofenac 0.1%, indomethacin 0.5%, nepafenac 0.3%, bromfenac 0.09%, or placebo 3 days before surgery. At the beginning of surgery, a sample of undiluted vitreous was collected in each patient to assess NSAIDs concentration and PGE2 levels. RESULTS: The median vitreous concentrations were 203.35 (interquartile range 146.54-264.18) pg/mL for diclofenac, 243.45 (interquartile range 156.96-365.37) pg/mL for nepafenac, 438.21 pg/mL (interquartile range, 282.52-645.87) for its active metabolite amfenac, 350.14 (interquartile range, 290.88-481.95) pg/mL for indomethacin, and 274.59 (245.43-358.25) pg/mL for bromfenac. Vitreous PGE2 levels were significantly lower for all the NSAIDs groups compared with the control group (P < 0.001). A statistically significant higher vitreous PGE2 level was found in the diclofenac group compared with the other NSAIDs groups (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Topical NSAIDs achieve sufficient vitreous concentration to decrease vitreous PGE2 levels compared with the control group. The different efficacy in reducing PGE2 concentration may affect the management of posterior segment inflammation.
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