Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody disease (MOG-AD) is now recognised as a nosological entity with specific clinical and paraclinical features to aid early diagnosis. Although no age group is exempt, median age of onset is within the fourth decade of life, with optic neuritis being the most frequent presenting phenotype. Disease course can be either monophasic or relapsing, with subsequent relapses most commonly involving the optic nerve. Residual disability develops in 50–80% of patients, with transverse myelitis at onset being the most significant predictor of long-term outcome. Recent advances in MOG antibody testing offer improved sensitivity and specificity. To avoid misdiagnosis, MOG antibody testing should be undertaken in selected cases presenting clinical and paraclinical features that are felt to be in keeping with MOG-AD, using a validated cell-based assay. MRI characteristics can help in differentiating MOG-AD from other neuroinflammatory disorders, including multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica. Cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal bands are uncommon. Randomised control trials are limited, but observational open-label experience suggests a role for high-dose steroids and plasma exchange in the treatment of acute attacks, and for immunosuppressive therapies, such as steroids, oral immunosuppressants and rituximab as maintenance treatment.

Neurological update: MOG antibody disease

Tomassini V.
2019

Abstract

Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody disease (MOG-AD) is now recognised as a nosological entity with specific clinical and paraclinical features to aid early diagnosis. Although no age group is exempt, median age of onset is within the fourth decade of life, with optic neuritis being the most frequent presenting phenotype. Disease course can be either monophasic or relapsing, with subsequent relapses most commonly involving the optic nerve. Residual disability develops in 50–80% of patients, with transverse myelitis at onset being the most significant predictor of long-term outcome. Recent advances in MOG antibody testing offer improved sensitivity and specificity. To avoid misdiagnosis, MOG antibody testing should be undertaken in selected cases presenting clinical and paraclinical features that are felt to be in keeping with MOG-AD, using a validated cell-based assay. MRI characteristics can help in differentiating MOG-AD from other neuroinflammatory disorders, including multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica. Cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal bands are uncommon. Randomised control trials are limited, but observational open-label experience suggests a role for high-dose steroids and plasma exchange in the treatment of acute attacks, and for immunosuppressive therapies, such as steroids, oral immunosuppressants and rituximab as maintenance treatment.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11564/716860
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