Development and in-vivo validation of a Continuous Wave (CW) functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) system is presented. The system is wearable, fiber-less, multi-channel (16×16, 256 channels) and expandable and it relies on silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) for light detection. SiPMs are inexpensive, low voltage and resilient semiconductor light detectors, whose performances are analogous to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The advantage of SiPMs with respect to PMTs is that they allow direct contact with the scalp and avoidance of optical fibers. In fact, the coupling of SiPMs and light emitting diodes (LEDs) allows the transfer of the analog signals to and from the scalp through thin electric cables that greatly increase the system flexibility. Moreover, the optical probes, mechanically resembling electroencephalographic electrodes, are robust against motion artifacts. In order to increase the signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) of the fNIRS acquisition and to decrease ambient noise contamination, a digital lock-in technique was implemented through LEDs modulation and SiPMs signal processing chain. In-vivo validation proved the system capabilities of detecting functional brain activity in the sensorimotor cortices. When compared to other state-of-the-art wearable fNIRS systems, the single photon sensitivity and dynamic range of SiPMs can exploit the long and variable interoptode distances needed for estimation of brain functional hemodynamics using CW-fNIRS.

Wearable, Fiber-less, Multi-Channel System for Continuous Wave Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy Based on Silicon Photomultipliers Detectors and Lock-In Amplification

Chiarelli A. M.
;
Perpetuini D.;Merla A.;
2019

Abstract

Development and in-vivo validation of a Continuous Wave (CW) functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) system is presented. The system is wearable, fiber-less, multi-channel (16×16, 256 channels) and expandable and it relies on silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) for light detection. SiPMs are inexpensive, low voltage and resilient semiconductor light detectors, whose performances are analogous to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The advantage of SiPMs with respect to PMTs is that they allow direct contact with the scalp and avoidance of optical fibers. In fact, the coupling of SiPMs and light emitting diodes (LEDs) allows the transfer of the analog signals to and from the scalp through thin electric cables that greatly increase the system flexibility. Moreover, the optical probes, mechanically resembling electroencephalographic electrodes, are robust against motion artifacts. In order to increase the signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) of the fNIRS acquisition and to decrease ambient noise contamination, a digital lock-in technique was implemented through LEDs modulation and SiPMs signal processing chain. In-vivo validation proved the system capabilities of detecting functional brain activity in the sensorimotor cortices. When compared to other state-of-the-art wearable fNIRS systems, the single photon sensitivity and dynamic range of SiPMs can exploit the long and variable interoptode distances needed for estimation of brain functional hemodynamics using CW-fNIRS.
978-1-5386-1311-5
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11564/718195
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