The stem bark (SB) of Piptadeniastrum africanum (PA) has been extensively used in African traditional medicinal systems. However, there is a dearth of scientific information regarding its possible activity in the management of type II diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and skin hyperpigmentation disorders. This study therefore attempted to elucidate the in vitro inhibitory action of ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts of P. africanum stem bark (PA-SB) on α-amylase, α-glucosidase, acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, and tyrosinase. Cell viability, catecholamine, and 3-hydroxykynurenine levels of hypothalamic HypoE22 cells exposed to PA-SB extracts were also investigated. The phytochemical profiles of the extracts were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and antioxidant properties were investigated. Saponin (867.42 mg quillaja equivalent/g) and tannin (33.81 mg catechin equivalent/g) contents were higher in the methanol extract. Multiple dihydroxy-trimethoxy(iso)flavone isomers, loliolide, eriodictyol, naringenin, luteolin, chrysoeriol, apigenin, and liquiritigenin, were characterized from PA-SB extracts using HPLC. The methanol extract of PA-SB showed highest inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase (4.88 mg galantamine equivalent (GALAE)/g extract), butyrylcholinesterase (5.37 mg GALAE/g extract), and tyrosinase (154.86 mg kojic acid equivalent/g extract) while α-glucosidase was effectively inhibited by the ethyl acetate extract (15.22 mmol acarbose equivalent/g extract). The methanol extract of PA-SB also showed potent antioxidant properties (493.87, 818.12, 953.07, and 732.19 mg Trolox equivalent/g extract, for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS), cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays, respectively). PA-SB extracts exhibited antioxidant activity and promising inhibition against key enzymes related to type II diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and skin hyperpigmentation disorders. Additionally, all extracts were able to contrast hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress, in HypoE22 cells, thus restoring basal catecholamine and 3-hydroxykinurenine levels, whereas only methanol and water extracts stimulated basal dopamine release. Overall, data from the present study contribute to the biological assessment of P. africanum that appears to be a promising source of natural compounds with protective and neuromodulatory effects.

Evaluation of Pharmacological and Phytochemical Profiles Piptadeniastrum africanum (Hook.f.) Brenan Stem Bark Extracts

Chiavaroli A.;Orlando G.
;
Menghini L.;Recinella L.;Brunetti L.;Leone S.;Ferrante C.
2020

Abstract

The stem bark (SB) of Piptadeniastrum africanum (PA) has been extensively used in African traditional medicinal systems. However, there is a dearth of scientific information regarding its possible activity in the management of type II diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and skin hyperpigmentation disorders. This study therefore attempted to elucidate the in vitro inhibitory action of ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts of P. africanum stem bark (PA-SB) on α-amylase, α-glucosidase, acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, and tyrosinase. Cell viability, catecholamine, and 3-hydroxykynurenine levels of hypothalamic HypoE22 cells exposed to PA-SB extracts were also investigated. The phytochemical profiles of the extracts were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and antioxidant properties were investigated. Saponin (867.42 mg quillaja equivalent/g) and tannin (33.81 mg catechin equivalent/g) contents were higher in the methanol extract. Multiple dihydroxy-trimethoxy(iso)flavone isomers, loliolide, eriodictyol, naringenin, luteolin, chrysoeriol, apigenin, and liquiritigenin, were characterized from PA-SB extracts using HPLC. The methanol extract of PA-SB showed highest inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase (4.88 mg galantamine equivalent (GALAE)/g extract), butyrylcholinesterase (5.37 mg GALAE/g extract), and tyrosinase (154.86 mg kojic acid equivalent/g extract) while α-glucosidase was effectively inhibited by the ethyl acetate extract (15.22 mmol acarbose equivalent/g extract). The methanol extract of PA-SB also showed potent antioxidant properties (493.87, 818.12, 953.07, and 732.19 mg Trolox equivalent/g extract, for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS), cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays, respectively). PA-SB extracts exhibited antioxidant activity and promising inhibition against key enzymes related to type II diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and skin hyperpigmentation disorders. Additionally, all extracts were able to contrast hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress, in HypoE22 cells, thus restoring basal catecholamine and 3-hydroxykinurenine levels, whereas only methanol and water extracts stimulated basal dopamine release. Overall, data from the present study contribute to the biological assessment of P. africanum that appears to be a promising source of natural compounds with protective and neuromodulatory effects.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11564/718374
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