Achyranthes aspera Linn. (Amaranthaceae), commonly known as the Prickly Chaff flower, is used as herbal medicine in the Ivorian’s culture, Africa. Nonetheless, there is currently a paucity of scientific information on A. aspera from the Ivory Coast. Herein, the antioxidant activity of A. aspera extracts (methanol, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and infusion) as well as the enzymatic inhibitory potentials towards key enzymes in human diseases, namely Alzheimer’s disease, (cholinesterases: AchE and BChE), type 2 diabetes (α-glucosidase and α-amylase) and hyperpigmentation (tyrosinase) were assessed. The total phenolic (TPC) and flavonoid (TFC) content was determined using colorimetric methods and the individual compounds were characterized using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS). Furthermore, a network pharmacology analysis was conducted to predict putative targets of identified phenolic compounds. The highest TPC was observed in the infused extract (28.86 ± 0.12 mg GAE/g), while the dichloromethane extract (38.48 ± 1.48 mg RE/g) showed the highest level of TFC. UHPLC-HRMS analysis has revealed an abundance of fatty acids, flavonoids, phenols and acylquinic acids. Among tested extracts, the infused extract displayed the highest free radical quenching, reducing and metal-chelating ability. The extracts (except infusion) were effective as enzyme inhibitors against AChE, while only methanolic and infused extracts showed noteworthy anti-BChE effects. The methanolic extract showed a remarkable antityrosinase effect (56.24 ± 5.05 mg KAE/g), as well. Modest to moderate inhibitory activity was observed against α-amylase (all extracts) and α-glucosidase (only dichloromethane extract). Finally, the network pharmacology analysis suggested the carbonic anhydrase II enzyme as a putative target for explaining, at least in part, the traditional use of A. aspera preparations as diuretic and blood clotting agent. Data amassed herein tend to validate the use of A. aspera in traditional medicine, as well as act as a stepping stone for further studies in the quest for novel phytopharmaceuticals. In this context, it is desirable that this study will contribute to the validation of the traditional uses of this plant in the African herbal medicine, and to the valorization of the whole chain production of A. aspera, as a local and sustainable botanical resource.

Qualitative phytochemical fingerprint and network pharmacology investigation of achyranthes aspera linn. extracts

Chiavaroli A.;Ferrante C.
;
Menghini L.;Recinella L.;Brunetti L.;Leone S.;Orlando G.
2020

Abstract

Achyranthes aspera Linn. (Amaranthaceae), commonly known as the Prickly Chaff flower, is used as herbal medicine in the Ivorian’s culture, Africa. Nonetheless, there is currently a paucity of scientific information on A. aspera from the Ivory Coast. Herein, the antioxidant activity of A. aspera extracts (methanol, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and infusion) as well as the enzymatic inhibitory potentials towards key enzymes in human diseases, namely Alzheimer’s disease, (cholinesterases: AchE and BChE), type 2 diabetes (α-glucosidase and α-amylase) and hyperpigmentation (tyrosinase) were assessed. The total phenolic (TPC) and flavonoid (TFC) content was determined using colorimetric methods and the individual compounds were characterized using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS). Furthermore, a network pharmacology analysis was conducted to predict putative targets of identified phenolic compounds. The highest TPC was observed in the infused extract (28.86 ± 0.12 mg GAE/g), while the dichloromethane extract (38.48 ± 1.48 mg RE/g) showed the highest level of TFC. UHPLC-HRMS analysis has revealed an abundance of fatty acids, flavonoids, phenols and acylquinic acids. Among tested extracts, the infused extract displayed the highest free radical quenching, reducing and metal-chelating ability. The extracts (except infusion) were effective as enzyme inhibitors against AChE, while only methanolic and infused extracts showed noteworthy anti-BChE effects. The methanolic extract showed a remarkable antityrosinase effect (56.24 ± 5.05 mg KAE/g), as well. Modest to moderate inhibitory activity was observed against α-amylase (all extracts) and α-glucosidase (only dichloromethane extract). Finally, the network pharmacology analysis suggested the carbonic anhydrase II enzyme as a putative target for explaining, at least in part, the traditional use of A. aspera preparations as diuretic and blood clotting agent. Data amassed herein tend to validate the use of A. aspera in traditional medicine, as well as act as a stepping stone for further studies in the quest for novel phytopharmaceuticals. In this context, it is desirable that this study will contribute to the validation of the traditional uses of this plant in the African herbal medicine, and to the valorization of the whole chain production of A. aspera, as a local and sustainable botanical resource.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11564/719724
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