During aging, the skeletal muscle tissue is one of the most affected, undergoing loss of mass and function, a process defined as sarcopenia. This age-related muscle mass and function decline, dependent on many factors, predispose individuals to decreased mobility, reduced muscle power and increased risk of falls. Several factors at the cellular and molecular level affect muscle aging, synergizing with each other. At present, it is broadly accepted that Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) play a primary role in the aging process, especially in those tissues like skeletal muscle, where the generation of free radicals is more pronounced as a consequence of the high consumption of oxygen. Recently, several studies have highlighted the involvement of muscle stem cells (satellite cells, SCs) in the progression of sarcopenia, showing a concomitant regression of activity and number of these cells. At a sub-cellular level, the main processes correlated with sarcopenia are the alteration of protein synthesis and mitochondrial dysfunction. Attempts to slow down or revert sarcopenia are essentially based on three approaches: use of supplements, pharmaceutical therapies and physical activity. In brief, it seems that appropriate physical exercise training protocols could be capable of slowing down and sometimes reversing the sarcopenic process. This finding is the consequence of a beneficial action of physical exercise on mitochondria and/or on the regenerative process led by SCs with different effects on the basis of training characteristics. Furthermore, according to a recent hypothesis, early strength training should be considered as public health advice.

Molecular and Cellular Aspects of Sarcopenia, Muscle Healthy Aging and Physical Conditioning in the Elderly

Ester Sara Di Filippo;Danilo Bondi;Tiziana Pietrangelo;Giorgio Fanò-Illic;Stefania Fulle
2020

Abstract

During aging, the skeletal muscle tissue is one of the most affected, undergoing loss of mass and function, a process defined as sarcopenia. This age-related muscle mass and function decline, dependent on many factors, predispose individuals to decreased mobility, reduced muscle power and increased risk of falls. Several factors at the cellular and molecular level affect muscle aging, synergizing with each other. At present, it is broadly accepted that Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) play a primary role in the aging process, especially in those tissues like skeletal muscle, where the generation of free radicals is more pronounced as a consequence of the high consumption of oxygen. Recently, several studies have highlighted the involvement of muscle stem cells (satellite cells, SCs) in the progression of sarcopenia, showing a concomitant regression of activity and number of these cells. At a sub-cellular level, the main processes correlated with sarcopenia are the alteration of protein synthesis and mitochondrial dysfunction. Attempts to slow down or revert sarcopenia are essentially based on three approaches: use of supplements, pharmaceutical therapies and physical activity. In brief, it seems that appropriate physical exercise training protocols could be capable of slowing down and sometimes reversing the sarcopenic process. This finding is the consequence of a beneficial action of physical exercise on mitochondria and/or on the regenerative process led by SCs with different effects on the basis of training characteristics. Furthermore, according to a recent hypothesis, early strength training should be considered as public health advice.
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
DiFilippo2020_Article_MolecularAndCellularAspectsOfS.pdf

Solo gestori archivio

Descrizione: Review Article
Tipologia: PDF editoriale
Dimensione 1.17 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
1.17 MB Adobe PDF   Visualizza/Apri   Richiedi una copia

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11564/721345
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 3
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? ND
social impact