Objective: Gastroenteritis represents with respiratory tract infection the most common infectious disease syndrome of humans in developing countries. Gut microbiota regional variation and dysbiosis play a crucial role in triggering and worsening this devastating GI disease. Materials and Methods: With this manuscript, we want to explore and emphasize the critical aspect of acute gastroenteritis in Middle-East Countries and its correlation with the clinical aspect of gut microbiota modification and intestinal homeostasis. Results: Approximately 1 of 50 children born each year in developed nations is hospitalized for acute gastroenteritis sometime during childhood. The highest rate of illness occurs in children between 3 and 24 months of age. The common causes of diarrhea are infections with viruses and bacteria, diarrhea due to a systemic infection other than gastrointestinal, diarrhea associated with antibiotic administration, and feeding related diarrhea. The single most common diarrheal disorder observed in the Emergency Department and general practice is viral gastroenteritis. In particular, Rotavirus is the cause of more than 2 million hospitalizations and over half a million deaths from acute GE in infants and young children. This burden produces also direct and indirect economic costs. The use of probiotics to counterbalance commensal dysbiosis is emerging as a standard medical practice in these countries. Conclusions: In this scenario, one of the most interesting aspects is that probiotics and gut microbiota modulation could deeply improve the prevention and treatment of this devastating GI pathology. At the same time, vaccination might represent a cost-effective strategy to reduce the health and economic burden of some pathogens, such as rotavirus.
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