The present is a comprehensive review of the immunopathology of Covid-19. The immune reaction to SARS-CoV-2 infection is characterized by differentiation and proliferation of a variety of immune cells with immune mediator production and release, and activation of other pathogen resistance mechanisms. We fully address the humoral and cellular immune changes induced by the virus, with particular emphasis on the role of the "cytokine storm" in the evolution of the disease. Moreover, we also propose some immune alterations (i.e., inflammatory parameters, cytokines, leukocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations) as prognostic markers of the disease. Furthermore, we discuss how immune modifying drugs, such as tocilizumab, chloroquine, glucocorticoids and immunoglobulins, and blood purification therapy, can constitute a fundamental moment in the therapy of the infection. Finally, we made a critical analysis of a number of substances, not yet utilized, but potentially useful in SARS-CoV-2 patients, such as IFN lambda, TNF blockers, ulinastatin, siponimod, tacrolimus, mesenchymal stem cells, inhibitors of mononuclear macrophage recruitment, IL-1 family antagonists, JAK-2 or STAT-3 inhibitors.

Immunopathology of SARS-CoV-2 Infection: Immune Cells and Mediators, Prognostic Factors, and Immune-Therapeutic Implications

Di Gioacchino M.
;
2020

Abstract

The present is a comprehensive review of the immunopathology of Covid-19. The immune reaction to SARS-CoV-2 infection is characterized by differentiation and proliferation of a variety of immune cells with immune mediator production and release, and activation of other pathogen resistance mechanisms. We fully address the humoral and cellular immune changes induced by the virus, with particular emphasis on the role of the "cytokine storm" in the evolution of the disease. Moreover, we also propose some immune alterations (i.e., inflammatory parameters, cytokines, leukocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations) as prognostic markers of the disease. Furthermore, we discuss how immune modifying drugs, such as tocilizumab, chloroquine, glucocorticoids and immunoglobulins, and blood purification therapy, can constitute a fundamental moment in the therapy of the infection. Finally, we made a critical analysis of a number of substances, not yet utilized, but potentially useful in SARS-CoV-2 patients, such as IFN lambda, TNF blockers, ulinastatin, siponimod, tacrolimus, mesenchymal stem cells, inhibitors of mononuclear macrophage recruitment, IL-1 family antagonists, JAK-2 or STAT-3 inhibitors.
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
Int J Mol Sci 2020 Di Gioacchino.pdf

accesso aperto

Tipologia: PDF editoriale
Dimensione 1.02 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
1.02 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11564/726969
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 42
  • Scopus 54
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 49
social impact