Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is a persistent, severe allergic eye disease, mainly occurring in children, that can lead to severe ocular complications including visual loss. The underlying etiology and pathophysiology of VKC remain unclear. Common therapies include topical antihistamines and mast cell stabilizers that are effective in mild-to-moderate forms of VKC but are often ineffective in severe forms that require topical or systemic corticosteroids. Dependence on steroids is common with potential adverse effects both local, as increased intraocular pressure, glaucoma, infection and cataract, as well as systemic ones, as reduction in child growth velocity. Alternative therapies are immunosuppressive drugs, like cyclosporine A and tacrolimus, that usually are effective but may also cause adverse effects. A promising therapeutic option is omalizumab, a recombinant anti-IgE humanized monoclonal antibody, currently used as add-on therapy for moderate to severe uncontrolled allergic asthma and chronic spontaneous urticaria. Here, we report the short-time duration of effective relief of symptoms after the prolonged use of omalizumab in a patient affected by refractory VKC. However, in our case any apparent beneficial effect was short lasting, and we propose that the duration of the disease and the concomitant long-term use of steroids leads to iatrogenic damage; thus, the disease becomes refractory to anti-IgE treatment.

Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis: A Case of Anti-IgE Treatment with Short-Lasting Remission

Alessia Gatta;Loredana Della Valle;Anila Farinelli;Gilda Scarano;Arianna Lumaca;Mario Di Gioacchino;Roberto Paganelli
2020-01-01

Abstract

Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is a persistent, severe allergic eye disease, mainly occurring in children, that can lead to severe ocular complications including visual loss. The underlying etiology and pathophysiology of VKC remain unclear. Common therapies include topical antihistamines and mast cell stabilizers that are effective in mild-to-moderate forms of VKC but are often ineffective in severe forms that require topical or systemic corticosteroids. Dependence on steroids is common with potential adverse effects both local, as increased intraocular pressure, glaucoma, infection and cataract, as well as systemic ones, as reduction in child growth velocity. Alternative therapies are immunosuppressive drugs, like cyclosporine A and tacrolimus, that usually are effective but may also cause adverse effects. A promising therapeutic option is omalizumab, a recombinant anti-IgE humanized monoclonal antibody, currently used as add-on therapy for moderate to severe uncontrolled allergic asthma and chronic spontaneous urticaria. Here, we report the short-time duration of effective relief of symptoms after the prolonged use of omalizumab in a patient affected by refractory VKC. However, in our case any apparent beneficial effect was short lasting, and we propose that the duration of the disease and the concomitant long-term use of steroids leads to iatrogenic damage; thus, the disease becomes refractory to anti-IgE treatment.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11564/728082
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