Introduction: Hypophysitis caused by immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has risen to the medical attention during the past decade. ICIs are monoclonal antibodies that block the interaction between molecules that normally inhibit the function of effector T cells, ultimately increasing their ability to destroy cancer cells but also causing immune-related adverse events, such as hypophysitis. Ipilimumab, a CTLA-4 blocker, was the first ICI approved from the Food and Drug Administration for advanced melanoma patients in 2011. Several additional ICIs targeting CTLA-4, PD-1, or PD-L1 are now used in many clinical trials, making it important for physicians to recognize and treat hypophysitis adequately. Areas covered: This review will provide insights into the mechanisms of pituitary toxicity, highlight the complexity of clinical phenotypes of ICI hypophysitis, and offer practical recommendations. Expert opinion: ICI hypophysitis differs in many respects from primary hypophysitis, and also according to the type of ICI that caused it. Its pathogenesis remains unknown, although the expression of CTLA-4 and PD-1 on pituitary cells could play a role. The diagnosis is mainly clinical since there are no specific serological markers and MRI findings are subtle. The treatment is based on long-term hormone replacement and does not typically require discontinuation of immunotherapy.

Hypophysitis induced by immune checkpoint inhibitors: a 10-year assessment

Di Dalmazi G.
;
2019

Abstract

Introduction: Hypophysitis caused by immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has risen to the medical attention during the past decade. ICIs are monoclonal antibodies that block the interaction between molecules that normally inhibit the function of effector T cells, ultimately increasing their ability to destroy cancer cells but also causing immune-related adverse events, such as hypophysitis. Ipilimumab, a CTLA-4 blocker, was the first ICI approved from the Food and Drug Administration for advanced melanoma patients in 2011. Several additional ICIs targeting CTLA-4, PD-1, or PD-L1 are now used in many clinical trials, making it important for physicians to recognize and treat hypophysitis adequately. Areas covered: This review will provide insights into the mechanisms of pituitary toxicity, highlight the complexity of clinical phenotypes of ICI hypophysitis, and offer practical recommendations. Expert opinion: ICI hypophysitis differs in many respects from primary hypophysitis, and also according to the type of ICI that caused it. Its pathogenesis remains unknown, although the expression of CTLA-4 and PD-1 on pituitary cells could play a role. The diagnosis is mainly clinical since there are no specific serological markers and MRI findings are subtle. The treatment is based on long-term hormone replacement and does not typically require discontinuation of immunotherapy.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11564/729175
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