Background and purpose: The differentiation of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia from vascular dementia (VaD) and mixed-type dementia (mixed dementia) requires stepwise analysis and usually occurs late in the disease process. Early diagnosis and therapy monitoring would benefit greatly from the identification of biomarkers of neurodegeneration, especially blood biomarkers. To this end, the aim of the present pilot study was to investigate differences in the distribution of peripheral T-cell populations in patients with AD compared to VaD and mixed dementia. Methods: Flow cytometry was performed on blood samples from 11 patients with AD, six with VaD and six with mixed dementia, as well as 17 healthy control subjects (HCs). CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were typed for expression of CD45, CD27, CD28, CD25, FoxP3, CCR4 and CCR6; the other leukocytes were also assessed. Functionally, immune cell uptake of the β-amyloid (Aβ) toxic fragment (Aβ1–42) was also evaluated. Results: A higher proportion of CD4+CD28− memory T cells and a reciprocal reduction of CD4+CD28+CD27+ naïve T lymphocytes was detected in all patient groups relative to controls. Significantly fewer CD4+CD25+FoxP3 regulatory T cells were present in patients with VaD, and significantly more CCR6+ and CCR4+ CD4+ T cells in those with AD. Higher CCR6+ T-cell frequencies were also present in patients with mixed dementia, potentially due to the inflammation and immune cell chemoattraction triggered by Aβ. Conclusions: The present study was a comprehensive investigation comparing different kinds of dementia, revealing differentially expressed peripheral markers that are potentially useful for early AD, VaD and mixed dementia diagnoses, and that would assist in proper treatments for these disparate diseases. Validation is now required.

Exploratory study on immune phenotypes in Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia

D'Angelo C.;Gaspari L.;Di Iorio A.;Paganelli R.
2020

Abstract

Background and purpose: The differentiation of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia from vascular dementia (VaD) and mixed-type dementia (mixed dementia) requires stepwise analysis and usually occurs late in the disease process. Early diagnosis and therapy monitoring would benefit greatly from the identification of biomarkers of neurodegeneration, especially blood biomarkers. To this end, the aim of the present pilot study was to investigate differences in the distribution of peripheral T-cell populations in patients with AD compared to VaD and mixed dementia. Methods: Flow cytometry was performed on blood samples from 11 patients with AD, six with VaD and six with mixed dementia, as well as 17 healthy control subjects (HCs). CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were typed for expression of CD45, CD27, CD28, CD25, FoxP3, CCR4 and CCR6; the other leukocytes were also assessed. Functionally, immune cell uptake of the β-amyloid (Aβ) toxic fragment (Aβ1–42) was also evaluated. Results: A higher proportion of CD4+CD28− memory T cells and a reciprocal reduction of CD4+CD28+CD27+ naïve T lymphocytes was detected in all patient groups relative to controls. Significantly fewer CD4+CD25+FoxP3 regulatory T cells were present in patients with VaD, and significantly more CCR6+ and CCR4+ CD4+ T cells in those with AD. Higher CCR6+ T-cell frequencies were also present in patients with mixed dementia, potentially due to the inflammation and immune cell chemoattraction triggered by Aβ. Conclusions: The present study was a comprehensive investigation comparing different kinds of dementia, revealing differentially expressed peripheral markers that are potentially useful for early AD, VaD and mixed dementia diagnoses, and that would assist in proper treatments for these disparate diseases. Validation is now required.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11564/729833
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