Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a viable but under-prescribed treatment for uremic patients. Concerns about its use include the bio-incompatibility of PD fluids, due to their potential for altering the functional and anatomical integrity of the peritoneal membrane. Many of these effects are thought to be due to the high glucose content of these solutions, with attendant issues of products generated during heat treatment of glucose-containing solutions. Moreover, excessive intraperitoneal absorption of glucose from the dialysate has many potential systemic metabolic effects. This article reviews the efforts to develop alternative PD solutions that obviate some of these side effects, through the replacement of part of their glucose content with other osmolytes which are at least as efficient in removing fluids as glucose, but less impactful on patient metabolism. In particular, we will summarize clinical studies on the use of alternative osmotic ingredients that are commercially available (icodextrin and amino acids) and preclinical studies on alternative solutions under development (taurine, polyglycerol, carnitine and xylitol). In addition to the expected benefit of a glucose-sparing approach, we describe an 'osmo-metabolic' approach in formulating novel PD solutions, in which there is the possibility of exploiting the pharmaco-metabolic properties of some of the osmolytes to attenuate the systemic side effects due to glucose. This approach has the potential to ameliorate pre-existing co-morbidities, including insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes, which have a high prevalence in the dialysis population, including in PD patients.

The osmo-metabolic approach: a novel and tantalizing glucose-sparing strategy in peritoneal dialysis

Mario Bonomini
Primo
;
Arduino Arduini;
2021

Abstract

Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a viable but under-prescribed treatment for uremic patients. Concerns about its use include the bio-incompatibility of PD fluids, due to their potential for altering the functional and anatomical integrity of the peritoneal membrane. Many of these effects are thought to be due to the high glucose content of these solutions, with attendant issues of products generated during heat treatment of glucose-containing solutions. Moreover, excessive intraperitoneal absorption of glucose from the dialysate has many potential systemic metabolic effects. This article reviews the efforts to develop alternative PD solutions that obviate some of these side effects, through the replacement of part of their glucose content with other osmolytes which are at least as efficient in removing fluids as glucose, but less impactful on patient metabolism. In particular, we will summarize clinical studies on the use of alternative osmotic ingredients that are commercially available (icodextrin and amino acids) and preclinical studies on alternative solutions under development (taurine, polyglycerol, carnitine and xylitol). In addition to the expected benefit of a glucose-sparing approach, we describe an 'osmo-metabolic' approach in formulating novel PD solutions, in which there is the possibility of exploiting the pharmaco-metabolic properties of some of the osmolytes to attenuate the systemic side effects due to glucose. This approach has the potential to ameliorate pre-existing co-morbidities, including insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes, which have a high prevalence in the dialysis population, including in PD patients.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11564/730069
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