Asthma and obesity are two major chronic diseases in children and adolescents. Recent scientific evidence points out a causative role of obesity in asthma predisposition. However, studies assessing the real impact of excessive weight gain on lung function in children have shown heterogeneous results. In this review, the pathological mechanisms linking obesity and development of asthma in children are summarized and factors influencing this relationship are evaluated. Common disease modifying factors including age, sex, ethnicity, development of atopic conditions, and metabolic alterations significantly affect the onset and phenotypic characteristics of asthma. Given this, the impact of these several factors on the obesity-asthma link were considered, and from revision of the literature we suggest the possibility to define three main clinical subtypes on the basis of epidemiological data and physiological-molecular pathways: obese-asthmatic and atopy, obese-asthmatic and insulin-resistance, and obese-asthmatic and dyslipidemia. The hypothesis of the different clinical subtypes characterizing a unique phenotype might have an important impact for both future clinical management and research priorities. This might imply the necessity to study the obese asthmatic child with a "multidisciplinary approach", evaluating the endocrinological and pneumological aspects simultaneously. This different approach might also make it possible to intervene earlier in a specific manner, possibly with a personalized and tailored treatment. Surely this hypothesis needs longitudinal and well-conducted future studies to be validated.

Asthma and obesity in children

Sansone F.;Attanasi M.;Chiarelli F.
2020

Abstract

Asthma and obesity are two major chronic diseases in children and adolescents. Recent scientific evidence points out a causative role of obesity in asthma predisposition. However, studies assessing the real impact of excessive weight gain on lung function in children have shown heterogeneous results. In this review, the pathological mechanisms linking obesity and development of asthma in children are summarized and factors influencing this relationship are evaluated. Common disease modifying factors including age, sex, ethnicity, development of atopic conditions, and metabolic alterations significantly affect the onset and phenotypic characteristics of asthma. Given this, the impact of these several factors on the obesity-asthma link were considered, and from revision of the literature we suggest the possibility to define three main clinical subtypes on the basis of epidemiological data and physiological-molecular pathways: obese-asthmatic and atopy, obese-asthmatic and insulin-resistance, and obese-asthmatic and dyslipidemia. The hypothesis of the different clinical subtypes characterizing a unique phenotype might have an important impact for both future clinical management and research priorities. This might imply the necessity to study the obese asthmatic child with a "multidisciplinary approach", evaluating the endocrinological and pneumological aspects simultaneously. This different approach might also make it possible to intervene earlier in a specific manner, possibly with a personalized and tailored treatment. Surely this hypothesis needs longitudinal and well-conducted future studies to be validated.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11564/730191
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