In the last decades the term Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) has been used in the scientific literature to describe an ubiquitous cellular mechanism that allows recovery of calcium (Ca2+) from the extracellular space. SOCE is triggered by a reduction of Ca2+ content (i.e. depletion) in intracellular stores, i.e. endoplasmic or sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER and SR). In skeletal muscle the mechanism is primarily mediated by a physical interaction between stromal interaction molecule-1 (STIM1), a Ca2+ sensor located in the SR membrane, and ORAI1, a Ca2+-permeable channel of external membranes, located in transverse tubules (TTs), the invaginations of the plasma membrane (PM) deputed to propagation of action potentials. It is generally accepted that in skeletal muscle SOCE is important to limit muscle fatigue during repetitive stimulation. We recently discovered that exercise promotes the assembly of new intracellular junctions that contains colocalized STIM1 and ORAI1, and that the presence of these new junctions increases Ca2+ entry via ORAI1, while improving fatigue resistance during repetitive stimulation. Based on these findings we named these new junctions Ca2+ Entry Units (CEUs). CEUs are dynamic organelles that assemble during muscle activity and disassemble during recovery thanks to the plasticity of the SR (containing STIM1) and the elongation/retraction of TTs (bearing ORAI1). Interestingly, similar structures described as SR stacks were previously reported in different mouse models carrying mutations in proteins involved in Ca2+ handling (calsequestrin-null mice; triadin and junctin null mice, etc.) or associated to microtubules (MAP6 knockout mice). Mutations in Stim1 and Orai1 (and calsequestrin-1) genes have been associated to tubular aggregate myopathy (TAM), a muscular disease characterized by: (a) muscle pain, cramping, or weakness that begins in childhood and worsens over time, and (b) the presence of large accumulations of ordered SR tubes (tubular aggregates, TAs) that do not contain myofibrils, mitochondria, nor TTs. Interestingly, TAs are also present in fast twitch muscle fibers of ageing mice. Several important issues remain un-answered: (a) the molecular mechanisms and signals that trigger the remodeling of membranes and the functional activation of SOCE during exercise are unclear; and (b) how dysfunctional SOCE and/or mutations in Stim1, Orai1 and calsequestrin (Casq1) genes lead to the formation of tubular aggregates (TAs) in aging and disease deserve investigation.

Calcium entry units (CEUs): perspectives in skeletal muscle function and disease

Feliciano Protasi
;
Laura Pietrangelo;Simona Boncompagni
2020

Abstract

In the last decades the term Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) has been used in the scientific literature to describe an ubiquitous cellular mechanism that allows recovery of calcium (Ca2+) from the extracellular space. SOCE is triggered by a reduction of Ca2+ content (i.e. depletion) in intracellular stores, i.e. endoplasmic or sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER and SR). In skeletal muscle the mechanism is primarily mediated by a physical interaction between stromal interaction molecule-1 (STIM1), a Ca2+ sensor located in the SR membrane, and ORAI1, a Ca2+-permeable channel of external membranes, located in transverse tubules (TTs), the invaginations of the plasma membrane (PM) deputed to propagation of action potentials. It is generally accepted that in skeletal muscle SOCE is important to limit muscle fatigue during repetitive stimulation. We recently discovered that exercise promotes the assembly of new intracellular junctions that contains colocalized STIM1 and ORAI1, and that the presence of these new junctions increases Ca2+ entry via ORAI1, while improving fatigue resistance during repetitive stimulation. Based on these findings we named these new junctions Ca2+ Entry Units (CEUs). CEUs are dynamic organelles that assemble during muscle activity and disassemble during recovery thanks to the plasticity of the SR (containing STIM1) and the elongation/retraction of TTs (bearing ORAI1). Interestingly, similar structures described as SR stacks were previously reported in different mouse models carrying mutations in proteins involved in Ca2+ handling (calsequestrin-null mice; triadin and junctin null mice, etc.) or associated to microtubules (MAP6 knockout mice). Mutations in Stim1 and Orai1 (and calsequestrin-1) genes have been associated to tubular aggregate myopathy (TAM), a muscular disease characterized by: (a) muscle pain, cramping, or weakness that begins in childhood and worsens over time, and (b) the presence of large accumulations of ordered SR tubes (tubular aggregates, TAs) that do not contain myofibrils, mitochondria, nor TTs. Interestingly, TAs are also present in fast twitch muscle fibers of ageing mice. Several important issues remain un-answered: (a) the molecular mechanisms and signals that trigger the remodeling of membranes and the functional activation of SOCE during exercise are unclear; and (b) how dysfunctional SOCE and/or mutations in Stim1, Orai1 and calsequestrin (Casq1) genes lead to the formation of tubular aggregates (TAs) in aging and disease deserve investigation.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11564/732360
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