The World Health Organization attributed more than four million premature deaths to ambient air pollution in 2016. Numerous epidemiologic studies demonstrate that acute respiratory tract infections and exacerbations of pre-existing chronic airway diseases can result from exposure to ambient (outdoor) air pollution. In this context, the atmosphere contains both chemical and microbial pollutants (bioaerosols), whose impact on human health remains unclear. Therefore, this review: summarises the findings from recent studies on the association between exposure to air pollutants-especially particulate matter and ozone-and onset or exacerbation of respiratory infections (e.g. pneumonia, cystic fibrosis lung infection, and tuberculosis); discusses the mechanisms underlying the relationship between air pollution and respiratory bacterial infections, which is necessary to define prevention and treatment strategies; demonstrates the relevance of air pollution modelling in investigating and preventing the impact of exposure to air pollutants on human health; and outlines future actions required to improve air quality and reduce morbidity and mortality related to air pollution.

Ambient air pollution and respiratory bacterial infections, a troubling association: epidemiology, underlying mechanisms, and future challenges

Pompilio, Arianna;Di Bonaventura, Giovanni
2020

Abstract

The World Health Organization attributed more than four million premature deaths to ambient air pollution in 2016. Numerous epidemiologic studies demonstrate that acute respiratory tract infections and exacerbations of pre-existing chronic airway diseases can result from exposure to ambient (outdoor) air pollution. In this context, the atmosphere contains both chemical and microbial pollutants (bioaerosols), whose impact on human health remains unclear. Therefore, this review: summarises the findings from recent studies on the association between exposure to air pollutants-especially particulate matter and ozone-and onset or exacerbation of respiratory infections (e.g. pneumonia, cystic fibrosis lung infection, and tuberculosis); discusses the mechanisms underlying the relationship between air pollution and respiratory bacterial infections, which is necessary to define prevention and treatment strategies; demonstrates the relevance of air pollution modelling in investigating and preventing the impact of exposure to air pollutants on human health; and outlines future actions required to improve air quality and reduce morbidity and mortality related to air pollution.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11564/733144
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