Sorghum halepense L (Poaceae), ordinarily it is known as Johnson grass and locally as baru. This study was designed to find the vascular mechanisms underlying the hypotensive activity of S. halepense. In this study, effect of S. halepense seed extract/fractions on various blood pressure parameters were evaluated in normal and fructose induced hypertensive rats by invasive technique. Possible underlying hypotensive mechanism of active fraction was determined by using various pharmacological inhibitors. S. halepense extract/fractions vasorelaxant effect were also evaluated on rat aorta rings in organ bath and various intracellular signaling pathway inhibitors were used for determination of underlying mechanisms. S. halepense extract/fractions produced blood pressure lowering effect with most significant effect by its aqueous soluble fraction at dose of 10mg/kg. This effect was attenuated by pretreatment of atropine. Aqueous soluble fraction produced endothelium dependent vasorelaxation in rat aortic rings that was inhibited by pretreatment of atropine after phenylephrine induced contraction. The vasorelaxant effect of aqueous soluble fraction was attenuated by potassium channel blockers and also produced inhibitory effect on calcium entry through calcium channels. It also suppressed phenylephrine induced contraction like verapamil. By HPLC analysis found vanillic acid and naringinin in it. In conclusion, aqueous soluble fraction of S.halepense possess phytoconstituents which may be responsible for hypotensive and vasorelaxant effect of Sorghum halepense.
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