Paradoxical embolism refers to a potential condition in which an embolus arising from a venous source crosses into the systemic circulation through a right-to-left cardiac shunt causing an arterial embolism. A 39-year-old woman carrier of a central venous catheter (CVC) without evident risk factors for stroke, developed an acute right homonymous hemianopia during hemodialysis. On neuroimaging, an infarct in the territory of the left posterior cerebral artery was demonstrated. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed a patent foramen ovale (PFO) and a large fluctuating thrombus in the right atrium on the tip of the CVC, thus allowing a diagnosis of ischemic stroke from paradoxical embolism. Oral anticoagulation therapy was started and the PFO was closed. This case emphasizes the potential risk of paradoxical embolism in patients with CVCs and PFO. This condition should be prevented and identified in patients with specific risk factors, such as long-term catheterization and hemodialysis.

Paradoxical embolism through a patent foramen ovale from central venous catheter thrombosis: A potential cause of stroke

Vincenzo Di Stefano
;
Marco Onofrj;
2020-01-01

Abstract

Paradoxical embolism refers to a potential condition in which an embolus arising from a venous source crosses into the systemic circulation through a right-to-left cardiac shunt causing an arterial embolism. A 39-year-old woman carrier of a central venous catheter (CVC) without evident risk factors for stroke, developed an acute right homonymous hemianopia during hemodialysis. On neuroimaging, an infarct in the territory of the left posterior cerebral artery was demonstrated. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed a patent foramen ovale (PFO) and a large fluctuating thrombus in the right atrium on the tip of the CVC, thus allowing a diagnosis of ischemic stroke from paradoxical embolism. Oral anticoagulation therapy was started and the PFO was closed. This case emphasizes the potential risk of paradoxical embolism in patients with CVCs and PFO. This condition should be prevented and identified in patients with specific risk factors, such as long-term catheterization and hemodialysis.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11564/745573
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