Cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) is an unusual, but potentially harmful, manifestation of systemic sarcoidosis (SA), a chronic disease characterized by organ involvement from noncaseating and nonnecrotizing granulomas. Lungs and intrathoracic lymph nodes are usually the sites that are most frequently affected, but no organ is spared and CS can affect a variable portion of SA patients, up to 25% from post-mortem studies. The cardiovascular involvement is usually associated with a bad prognosis and is responsible for the major cause of death and complications, particularly in African American patients. Furthermore, the diagnosis is often complicated by the occurrence of non-specific clinical manifestations, which can mimic the effect of more common heart disorders, and imaging and biopsies are the most valid approach to avoid misdiagnosis. This narrative review summarizes the main clinical features of CS and imaging findings, particularly of CMR and 18-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (18F-FDG PET) that can give the best cost/benefit ratio in terms of the diagnostic approach. Imaging can be very useful in replacing the endomyocardial biopsy in selected cases, to avoid unnecessary, and potentially dangerous, invasive maneuvers.

Clinical Features and Diagnosis of Cardiac Sarcoidosis

Tana, Claudio
Primo
;
Mantini, Cesare;Tana, Marco;Ricci, Fabrizio;Cipollone, Francesco
Penultimo
;
Giamberardino, Maria Adele
Ultimo
2021-01-01

Abstract

Cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) is an unusual, but potentially harmful, manifestation of systemic sarcoidosis (SA), a chronic disease characterized by organ involvement from noncaseating and nonnecrotizing granulomas. Lungs and intrathoracic lymph nodes are usually the sites that are most frequently affected, but no organ is spared and CS can affect a variable portion of SA patients, up to 25% from post-mortem studies. The cardiovascular involvement is usually associated with a bad prognosis and is responsible for the major cause of death and complications, particularly in African American patients. Furthermore, the diagnosis is often complicated by the occurrence of non-specific clinical manifestations, which can mimic the effect of more common heart disorders, and imaging and biopsies are the most valid approach to avoid misdiagnosis. This narrative review summarizes the main clinical features of CS and imaging findings, particularly of CMR and 18-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (18F-FDG PET) that can give the best cost/benefit ratio in terms of the diagnostic approach. Imaging can be very useful in replacing the endomyocardial biopsy in selected cases, to avoid unnecessary, and potentially dangerous, invasive maneuvers.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11564/755965
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