OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to report the spectrum of placental pathology findings in pregnancies complicated by SARS-CoV-2 infection. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Embase, Google Scholar, and the Web of Science databases were searched up to August 11, 2021. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Histopathologic anomalies included maternal vascular malperfusion, fetal vascular malperfusion, acute inflammatory pathology, chronic inflammatory pathology, increased perivillous fibrin, and intervillous thrombosis. Moreover, subanalyses of symptomatic women only and high-risk pregnancies were performed. METHODS: Histopathologic analysis of the placenta included gross examination, histopathology on hematoxylin and eosin, immunohistochemistry, fluorescence in situ hybridization, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction on placental tissue, and transmission electron microscope. Random-effect meta-analyses were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: A total of 56 studies (1008 pregnancies) were included. Maternal vascular malperfusion was reported in 30.7% of placentas (95% confidence interval, 20.3–42.1), whereas fetal vascular malperfusion was observed in 27.08 % of cases (95% confidence interval, 19.2–35.6). Acute and chronic inflammatory pathologies were reported in 22.68% (95% confidence interval, 16.9–29.0) and 25.65% (95% confidence interval, 18.4–33.6) of cases, respectively. Increased perivillous fibrin was observed in 32.7% (95% confidence interval, 24.1–42.0) of placentas undergoing histopathologic analysis, whereas intervillous thrombosis was observed in 14.6% of cases (95% confidence interval, 9.7–20.2). Other placental findings, including a basal plate with attached myometrial fibers, microscopic accretism, villous edema, increased circulating nucleated red blood cells, or membranes with hemorrhage, were reported in 37.5% of cases (95% confidence interval, 28.0–47.5), whereas only 17.5% of cases (95% confidence interval, 10.9–25.2) did not present any abnormal histologic findings. The subanalyses according to maternal symptoms owing to SARS-CoV-2 infection or the presence of a high-risk pregnancy showed a similar distribution of the different histopathologic anomalies to that reported in the main analysis. Moreover, the risk of placental histopathologic anomalies was higher when considering only case-control studies comparing women with SARS-CoV-2 infection with healthy controls. CONCLUSION: In pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection, a significant proportion of placentas showed histopathologic findings, suggesting placental hypoperfusion and inflammation. Future multicenter prospective blinded studies are needed to correlate these placental lesions with pregnancy outcomes.

Placental histopathology after SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Di Girolamo R.;Alameddine S.;D'Angelo E.;Galliani C.;Matarrelli B.;Buca D.;Liberati M.;D'Antonio F.
Ultimo
2021-01-01

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to report the spectrum of placental pathology findings in pregnancies complicated by SARS-CoV-2 infection. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Embase, Google Scholar, and the Web of Science databases were searched up to August 11, 2021. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Histopathologic anomalies included maternal vascular malperfusion, fetal vascular malperfusion, acute inflammatory pathology, chronic inflammatory pathology, increased perivillous fibrin, and intervillous thrombosis. Moreover, subanalyses of symptomatic women only and high-risk pregnancies were performed. METHODS: Histopathologic analysis of the placenta included gross examination, histopathology on hematoxylin and eosin, immunohistochemistry, fluorescence in situ hybridization, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction on placental tissue, and transmission electron microscope. Random-effect meta-analyses were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: A total of 56 studies (1008 pregnancies) were included. Maternal vascular malperfusion was reported in 30.7% of placentas (95% confidence interval, 20.3–42.1), whereas fetal vascular malperfusion was observed in 27.08 % of cases (95% confidence interval, 19.2–35.6). Acute and chronic inflammatory pathologies were reported in 22.68% (95% confidence interval, 16.9–29.0) and 25.65% (95% confidence interval, 18.4–33.6) of cases, respectively. Increased perivillous fibrin was observed in 32.7% (95% confidence interval, 24.1–42.0) of placentas undergoing histopathologic analysis, whereas intervillous thrombosis was observed in 14.6% of cases (95% confidence interval, 9.7–20.2). Other placental findings, including a basal plate with attached myometrial fibers, microscopic accretism, villous edema, increased circulating nucleated red blood cells, or membranes with hemorrhage, were reported in 37.5% of cases (95% confidence interval, 28.0–47.5), whereas only 17.5% of cases (95% confidence interval, 10.9–25.2) did not present any abnormal histologic findings. The subanalyses according to maternal symptoms owing to SARS-CoV-2 infection or the presence of a high-risk pregnancy showed a similar distribution of the different histopathologic anomalies to that reported in the main analysis. Moreover, the risk of placental histopathologic anomalies was higher when considering only case-control studies comparing women with SARS-CoV-2 infection with healthy controls. CONCLUSION: In pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection, a significant proportion of placentas showed histopathologic findings, suggesting placental hypoperfusion and inflammation. Future multicenter prospective blinded studies are needed to correlate these placental lesions with pregnancy outcomes.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11564/763457
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