Metformin, a drug widely used in type 2 diabetes (T2D), has been shown to protect human beta-cells exposed to gluco- and/or lipotoxic conditions and those in islets from T2D donors. We assessed whether metformin could relieve the human beta-cell stress induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines (which mediate beta-cells damage in type 1 diabetes, T1D) and investigated the underlying mechanisms using shotgun proteomics. Human islets were exposed to 50 U/mL interleukin-1 beta plus 1000 U/mL interferon-gamma for 48 h, with or without 2.4 mu g/mL metformin. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and caspase 3/7 activity were studied, and a shotgun label free proteomics analysis was performed. Metformin prevented the reduction of GSIS and the activation of caspase 3/7 induced by cytokines. Proteomics analysis identified more than 3000 proteins in human islets. Cytokines alone altered the expression of 244 proteins (145 up- and 99 down-regulated), while, in the presence of metformin, cytokine-exposure modified the expression of 231 proteins (128 up- and 103 downregulated). Among the proteins inversely regulated in the two conditions, we found proteins involved in vesicle motility, defense against oxidative stress (including peroxiredoxins), metabolism, protein synthesis, glycolysis and its regulation, and cytoskeletal proteins. Metformin inhibited pathways linked to inflammation, immune reactions, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, and cell senescence. Some of the changes were confirmed by Western blot. Therefore, metformin prevented part of the deleterious actions of pro-inflammatory cytokines in human beta-cells, which was accompanied by islet proteome modifications. This suggests that metformin, besides use in T2D, might be considered for beta-cell protection in other types of diabetes, possibly including early T1D.

The Protective Action of Metformin against Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine-Induced Human Islet Cell Damage and the Mechanisms Involved

Zuccarini, Mariachiara;Trerotola, Marco;Ronci, Maurizio
2022

Abstract

Metformin, a drug widely used in type 2 diabetes (T2D), has been shown to protect human beta-cells exposed to gluco- and/or lipotoxic conditions and those in islets from T2D donors. We assessed whether metformin could relieve the human beta-cell stress induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines (which mediate beta-cells damage in type 1 diabetes, T1D) and investigated the underlying mechanisms using shotgun proteomics. Human islets were exposed to 50 U/mL interleukin-1 beta plus 1000 U/mL interferon-gamma for 48 h, with or without 2.4 mu g/mL metformin. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and caspase 3/7 activity were studied, and a shotgun label free proteomics analysis was performed. Metformin prevented the reduction of GSIS and the activation of caspase 3/7 induced by cytokines. Proteomics analysis identified more than 3000 proteins in human islets. Cytokines alone altered the expression of 244 proteins (145 up- and 99 down-regulated), while, in the presence of metformin, cytokine-exposure modified the expression of 231 proteins (128 up- and 103 downregulated). Among the proteins inversely regulated in the two conditions, we found proteins involved in vesicle motility, defense against oxidative stress (including peroxiredoxins), metabolism, protein synthesis, glycolysis and its regulation, and cytoskeletal proteins. Metformin inhibited pathways linked to inflammation, immune reactions, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, and cell senescence. Some of the changes were confirmed by Western blot. Therefore, metformin prevented part of the deleterious actions of pro-inflammatory cytokines in human beta-cells, which was accompanied by islet proteome modifications. This suggests that metformin, besides use in T2D, might be considered for beta-cell protection in other types of diabetes, possibly including early T1D.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11564/790392
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