Cardiovascular diseases are the main causes of death and health costs in developed countries. Although cardiovascular diseases are thought to affect only adulthood, the underlying process of atherosclerosis begins in the first decade of life. Epidemiological studies show that severity of atherosclerosis depends both on the number and intensity of risk factors. Early detection of cardiovascular risk in childhood is the most powerful tool to prevent cardiovascular accidents in adulthood and possibly reduce its consequent burden for the future. A large amount of cardiovascular risk factors is already detectable in childhood and include non-modifiable elements, among which genetic factors and congenital heart diseases, and modifiable elements, which depend on environmental effects (e.g. lifestyle and nutrition). Regardless of the possibility to intervene on these factors, an early diagnosis is fundamental to ensure an optimal life expectancy in adulthood. The most important cardiovascular risk factors in the paediatric age and adolescence are excess weight, arterial hypertension, glucose metabolism and lipid metabolism alterations. In this review we will discuss the main risk factors strictly correlated with cardiac and vessels diseases, focusing on their pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatments.

Cardiovascular risk in children: a burden for future generations

Candelino, Maria;Tagi, Veronica Maria;Chiarelli, Francesco
2022-01-01

Abstract

Cardiovascular diseases are the main causes of death and health costs in developed countries. Although cardiovascular diseases are thought to affect only adulthood, the underlying process of atherosclerosis begins in the first decade of life. Epidemiological studies show that severity of atherosclerosis depends both on the number and intensity of risk factors. Early detection of cardiovascular risk in childhood is the most powerful tool to prevent cardiovascular accidents in adulthood and possibly reduce its consequent burden for the future. A large amount of cardiovascular risk factors is already detectable in childhood and include non-modifiable elements, among which genetic factors and congenital heart diseases, and modifiable elements, which depend on environmental effects (e.g. lifestyle and nutrition). Regardless of the possibility to intervene on these factors, an early diagnosis is fundamental to ensure an optimal life expectancy in adulthood. The most important cardiovascular risk factors in the paediatric age and adolescence are excess weight, arterial hypertension, glucose metabolism and lipid metabolism alterations. In this review we will discuss the main risk factors strictly correlated with cardiac and vessels diseases, focusing on their pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatments.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11564/790436
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