Platelet-type lipoxygenase (pl12-LOX), encoded by ALOX12, catalyzes the production of the lipid mediator 12Shydroperoxyeicosa-5,8,10,14-tetraenoic acid (12S-HpETE), which is quickly reduced by cellular peroxidases to form 12(S)-hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (12S-HETE). Platelets express high levels of pl12-LOX and generate considerable amounts of 12S-HETE from arachidonic acid (AA; C20:4, n-6). The development of sensitive chiral liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods has allowed the accurate quantification of 12S-HETE in biological samples. Moreover, advances in the knowledge of the mechanism of action of 12S-HETE have been achieved. The orphan G-protein-coupled receptor 31 (GPR31) has been identified as the high-affinity 12S-HETE receptor. Moreover, upon platelet activation, 12S-HETE is produced, and significant amounts are found esterified to membrane phospholipids (PLs), such as phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylcholine (PC), promoting thrombin generation. Platelets play many roles in cancer metastasis. Among them, the platelets' ability to interact with cancer cells and transfer platelet molecules by the release of extracellular vesicles (EVs) is noteworthy. Recently, it was found that platelets induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition(EMT) in cancer cells, a phenomenon known to confer high-grade malignancy, through the transfer of pl12-LOX contained in platelet-derived EVs. These cancer cells now generate 12-HETE, considered a key modulator of cancer metastasis. Interestingly, 12-HETE was mainly found esterified in plasmalogen phospholipids of cancer cells. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the regulation and functions of pl12-LOX in platelets and cancer cells and their crosstalk. Novel approaches to preventing cancer and metastasis by the pharmacological inhibition of pl12-LOX and the internalization of mEVs are discussed.

Biology and pharmacology of platelet-type 12-lipoxygenase in platelets, cancer cells, and their crosstalk

Contursi, Annalisa
Primo
;
Tacconelli, Stefania;Hofling, Ulrika;Bruno, Annalisa;Dovizio, Melania;Ballerini, Patrizia
Penultimo
;
Patrignani, Paola
2022-01-01

Abstract

Platelet-type lipoxygenase (pl12-LOX), encoded by ALOX12, catalyzes the production of the lipid mediator 12Shydroperoxyeicosa-5,8,10,14-tetraenoic acid (12S-HpETE), which is quickly reduced by cellular peroxidases to form 12(S)-hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (12S-HETE). Platelets express high levels of pl12-LOX and generate considerable amounts of 12S-HETE from arachidonic acid (AA; C20:4, n-6). The development of sensitive chiral liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods has allowed the accurate quantification of 12S-HETE in biological samples. Moreover, advances in the knowledge of the mechanism of action of 12S-HETE have been achieved. The orphan G-protein-coupled receptor 31 (GPR31) has been identified as the high-affinity 12S-HETE receptor. Moreover, upon platelet activation, 12S-HETE is produced, and significant amounts are found esterified to membrane phospholipids (PLs), such as phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylcholine (PC), promoting thrombin generation. Platelets play many roles in cancer metastasis. Among them, the platelets' ability to interact with cancer cells and transfer platelet molecules by the release of extracellular vesicles (EVs) is noteworthy. Recently, it was found that platelets induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition(EMT) in cancer cells, a phenomenon known to confer high-grade malignancy, through the transfer of pl12-LOX contained in platelet-derived EVs. These cancer cells now generate 12-HETE, considered a key modulator of cancer metastasis. Interestingly, 12-HETE was mainly found esterified in plasmalogen phospholipids of cancer cells. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the regulation and functions of pl12-LOX in platelets and cancer cells and their crosstalk. Novel approaches to preventing cancer and metastasis by the pharmacological inhibition of pl12-LOX and the internalization of mEVs are discussed.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11564/791831
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