Clinical and experimental evidence sustain the role of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 in intestinal tumorigenesis. However, the cell type expressing the enzyme involved and molecular mechanism(s) have not been clarified yet. We aimed to elucidate the role of platelet COX-1 (the target of low-dose aspirin in humans) in intestinal tumorigenesis of ApcMin/+ mice, considered a clinically relevant model. To realize this objective, we generated an ApcMin/+ mouse with a specific deletion of Ptgs1(COX-1 gene name) in megakaryocytes/platelets (ApcMin/+;pPtgs1-/-mice) characterized by profound inhibition of thromboxane(TX)A2 biosynthesis ex vivo (serum TXB2; by 99%) and in vivo [urinary 2,3-dinor-TXB2(TXM), by 79%]. ApcMin/+ mice with the deletion of platelet COX-1 showed a significantly reduced number (67%) and size (32%) of tumors in the small intestine. The intestinal adenomas of these mice had decreased proliferative index associated with reduced COX-2 expression and systemic prostaglandin(PG)E2 biosynthesis (urinary PGEM) vs. ApcMin/+mice. Extravasated platelets were detected in the intestine of ApcMin/+mice. Thus, we explored their contribution to COX-2 induction in fibroblasts, considered the primary polyp cell type expressing the protein. In the coculture of human platelets and myofibroblasts, platelet-derived TXA2 was involved in the induction of COX-2-dependent PGE2 in myofibroblasts since it was prevented by the selective inhibition of platelet COX-1 by aspirin or by a specific antagonist of TXA2 receptors. In conclusion, our results support the platelet hypothesis of intestinal tumorigenesis and provide experimental evidence that selective inhibition of platelet COX-1 can mitigate early events of intestinal tumorigenesis by restraining COX-2 induction.

The specific deletion of cyclooxygenase-1 in megakaryocytes/platelets reduces intestinal polyposis in ApcMin/+ mice

Bruno, Annalisa
Primo
;
Contursi, Annalisa;Tacconelli, Stefania;Sacco, Angela;Hofling, Ulrika;Mucci, Matteo;Lamolinara, Alessia;Del Pizzo, Francesco;Ballerini, Patrizia;Di Gregorio, Patrizia;Patrignani, Paola
2022-01-01

Abstract

Clinical and experimental evidence sustain the role of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 in intestinal tumorigenesis. However, the cell type expressing the enzyme involved and molecular mechanism(s) have not been clarified yet. We aimed to elucidate the role of platelet COX-1 (the target of low-dose aspirin in humans) in intestinal tumorigenesis of ApcMin/+ mice, considered a clinically relevant model. To realize this objective, we generated an ApcMin/+ mouse with a specific deletion of Ptgs1(COX-1 gene name) in megakaryocytes/platelets (ApcMin/+;pPtgs1-/-mice) characterized by profound inhibition of thromboxane(TX)A2 biosynthesis ex vivo (serum TXB2; by 99%) and in vivo [urinary 2,3-dinor-TXB2(TXM), by 79%]. ApcMin/+ mice with the deletion of platelet COX-1 showed a significantly reduced number (67%) and size (32%) of tumors in the small intestine. The intestinal adenomas of these mice had decreased proliferative index associated with reduced COX-2 expression and systemic prostaglandin(PG)E2 biosynthesis (urinary PGEM) vs. ApcMin/+mice. Extravasated platelets were detected in the intestine of ApcMin/+mice. Thus, we explored their contribution to COX-2 induction in fibroblasts, considered the primary polyp cell type expressing the protein. In the coculture of human platelets and myofibroblasts, platelet-derived TXA2 was involved in the induction of COX-2-dependent PGE2 in myofibroblasts since it was prevented by the selective inhibition of platelet COX-1 by aspirin or by a specific antagonist of TXA2 receptors. In conclusion, our results support the platelet hypothesis of intestinal tumorigenesis and provide experimental evidence that selective inhibition of platelet COX-1 can mitigate early events of intestinal tumorigenesis by restraining COX-2 induction.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11564/791832
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