Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with dysregulation of the immune system featuring inappropriate immune responses, exacerbation of inflammatory responses, and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in patients with severe disease. Sarcoidosis, also known as Besnier-Boeck-Schaumann disease, is an idiopathic granulomatous multisystem disease characterized by dense epithelioid non-necrotizing lesions with varying degrees of lymphocytic inflammation. These two diseases have similar clinical manifestations and may influence each other at multiple levels, eventually affecting their clinical courses and prognosis. Notably, sarcoidosis patients are at high risk of severe COVID-19 pneumonia because of the underlying lung disease and chronic immunosuppressive treatment. In this narrative review, we will discuss interactions between sarcoidosis and COVID-19 in terms of clinical manifestations, treatment, and pathogenesis, including the role of the dysregulated renin-angiotensin system, altered immune responses involving increased cytokine levels and immune system hyperactivation, and cellular death pathways.

Sarcoidosis and COVID-19: At the Cross-Road between Immunopathology and Clinical Manifestation

Tana, Claudio
;
Mantini, Cesare;Tana, Marco;Ricci, Fabrizio;Cipollone, Francesco;Giamberardino, Maria Adele;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with dysregulation of the immune system featuring inappropriate immune responses, exacerbation of inflammatory responses, and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in patients with severe disease. Sarcoidosis, also known as Besnier-Boeck-Schaumann disease, is an idiopathic granulomatous multisystem disease characterized by dense epithelioid non-necrotizing lesions with varying degrees of lymphocytic inflammation. These two diseases have similar clinical manifestations and may influence each other at multiple levels, eventually affecting their clinical courses and prognosis. Notably, sarcoidosis patients are at high risk of severe COVID-19 pneumonia because of the underlying lung disease and chronic immunosuppressive treatment. In this narrative review, we will discuss interactions between sarcoidosis and COVID-19 in terms of clinical manifestations, treatment, and pathogenesis, including the role of the dysregulated renin-angiotensin system, altered immune responses involving increased cytokine levels and immune system hyperactivation, and cellular death pathways.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11564/792578
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