As classically captured in the notion of affordance, the natural environment presents animals with multiple opportunities for action and locomotion appears as the privileged form of action to cover distance in the extrapersonal space/environment. We have recently described a facilitation effect, known as “macro-affordance”, for the execution of walking-related actions in response to distant vs. near objects/locations in the extrapersonal space. However, since the manipulation of distance was coextensive to landmark-objects contained in the environment and to the environmental layout per se, the relative contribution of these two factors remains undetermined. In addition, since the effect was originally described in the context of an incidental priming paradigm, it is still unknown whether it was specifically associated with an implicit coding of environmental distance. Here, across three experiments, we examined the degree to which the “macro-affordance” effect reflects (i) the encoding of environmental vs. landmark-objects’ distance, (ii) the involvement of an implicit vs. controlled system, (iii) a foot-effector specificity. The results showed that the “macro-affordance” effect is more efficiently triggered by the framing distance of the environmental layout (far/wide/panoramic vs. near/close/restricted) rather than of isolated landmark-objects in the environment and that it only emerges when the distance dimension is implicitly processed within the incidental priming paradigm. The results additionally suggested a specificity of the effect for foot- vs. hand-related actions. The present findings suggest that macro-affordances reflect an implicit coding of spatial features of the environmental layout and viewer–environment relationships that preferentially guide a walking-related exploration of the spatial environment.

Foot-related/walking macro-affordances are implicitly activated and preferentially guided by the framing distance of the environmental layout

Tosoni A.
Primo
;
Altomare E. C.
Secondo
;
Perrucci M. G.;Committeri G.
Penultimo
;
Di Matteo R.
Ultimo
2022

Abstract

As classically captured in the notion of affordance, the natural environment presents animals with multiple opportunities for action and locomotion appears as the privileged form of action to cover distance in the extrapersonal space/environment. We have recently described a facilitation effect, known as “macro-affordance”, for the execution of walking-related actions in response to distant vs. near objects/locations in the extrapersonal space. However, since the manipulation of distance was coextensive to landmark-objects contained in the environment and to the environmental layout per se, the relative contribution of these two factors remains undetermined. In addition, since the effect was originally described in the context of an incidental priming paradigm, it is still unknown whether it was specifically associated with an implicit coding of environmental distance. Here, across three experiments, we examined the degree to which the “macro-affordance” effect reflects (i) the encoding of environmental vs. landmark-objects’ distance, (ii) the involvement of an implicit vs. controlled system, (iii) a foot-effector specificity. The results showed that the “macro-affordance” effect is more efficiently triggered by the framing distance of the environmental layout (far/wide/panoramic vs. near/close/restricted) rather than of isolated landmark-objects in the environment and that it only emerges when the distance dimension is implicitly processed within the incidental priming paradigm. The results additionally suggested a specificity of the effect for foot- vs. hand-related actions. The present findings suggest that macro-affordances reflect an implicit coding of spatial features of the environmental layout and viewer–environment relationships that preferentially guide a walking-related exploration of the spatial environment.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11564/792792
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