Since lipid abnormalities tend to progress from childhood to adulthood, it is necessary to early identify and treat children and adolescents with dyslipidemia. This is important in order to reduce the cardiovascular risk, delay the development of fatty streaks, slow the progression of atherosclerosis and reverse atherosclerotic plaques. Together with therapeutic lifestyle changes, statins are the most common lipid-lowering drugs. By inhibiting the endogenous cholesterol synthesis in the liver, statins increase the catabolism of LDL-C, reduce VLDL-C, IDL-C and TG and modestly increase HDL-C. Regardless of their lipid-lowering effect, statins have also pleiotropic effects. Statins have increasingly been prescribed in children and adolescents and mounting evidence suggests their beneficial role. As with adults, in children, several studies have demonstrated that statin therapy is efficient at lowering lipid levels and reducing CIMT progression and cumulative estimated atherosclerotic burden in children. Statins are generally very well-tolerated in both adults and children and adverse events are quite uncommon. When evaluating the need and the timing for statin treatment, the presence of several factors (secondary causes, familial history, additional risk factors) should also be considered. Before initiating statins, it is imperative for clinical practitioners to consult patients and families and, as with any new medication therapy, to monitor patients taking statins. Despite being safe and effective, many children with lipid disorders are not on statin therapy and are not receiving the full potential benefit of adequate lipid-lowering therapies. It is therefore important that clinicians become familiar with statins.

Statins in Children, an Update

Fiorentino, Riccardo;Chiarelli, Francesco
2023-01-01

Abstract

Since lipid abnormalities tend to progress from childhood to adulthood, it is necessary to early identify and treat children and adolescents with dyslipidemia. This is important in order to reduce the cardiovascular risk, delay the development of fatty streaks, slow the progression of atherosclerosis and reverse atherosclerotic plaques. Together with therapeutic lifestyle changes, statins are the most common lipid-lowering drugs. By inhibiting the endogenous cholesterol synthesis in the liver, statins increase the catabolism of LDL-C, reduce VLDL-C, IDL-C and TG and modestly increase HDL-C. Regardless of their lipid-lowering effect, statins have also pleiotropic effects. Statins have increasingly been prescribed in children and adolescents and mounting evidence suggests their beneficial role. As with adults, in children, several studies have demonstrated that statin therapy is efficient at lowering lipid levels and reducing CIMT progression and cumulative estimated atherosclerotic burden in children. Statins are generally very well-tolerated in both adults and children and adverse events are quite uncommon. When evaluating the need and the timing for statin treatment, the presence of several factors (secondary causes, familial history, additional risk factors) should also be considered. Before initiating statins, it is imperative for clinical practitioners to consult patients and families and, as with any new medication therapy, to monitor patients taking statins. Despite being safe and effective, many children with lipid disorders are not on statin therapy and are not receiving the full potential benefit of adequate lipid-lowering therapies. It is therefore important that clinicians become familiar with statins.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11564/802492
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