Four sites in the western sector of Lipari Island with still active hydrothermal activity are here considered. The petrography (mesoscopic observations and XRPD) and geochemistry (major, minor and trace elements chemistry) of ten representative and extremely altered volcanic rocks were characterized. Two types of parageneses of altered rocks are discriminable, one rich in silicate phases (opal/cristobalite, montmorillonite, kaolinite, alunite and hematite) and one in sulphates (gypsum, plus minor amounts of anhydrite or bassanite). The altered silicate-rich rocks are rich in SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3 and H2O, and depleted in CaO, MgO, K2O and Na2O, while the sulphate-rich ones are extremely enriched in CaO and SO4 in comparison with local unaltered volcanic rocks. The content of many incompatible elements is similar in altered silicate-rich rocks and lower in sulphate-rich ones with respect to the pristine volcanic rocks; conversely, almost all REEs are markedly enriched in silicate-rich rocks and heavy REEs are enriched in sulphate-rich altered rocks compared to unaltered volcanic rocks. Reaction path modelling of basaltic andesite dissolution in local steam condensate predicts the production of amorphous-silica, anhydrite, goethite, and kaolinite (or smectites and saponites) as stable secondary minerals and alunite, jarosite, and jurbanite as ephemeral minerals. Considering possible post-depositional reactions and admitting that the presence of two distinct parageneses is apparent, since gypsum is prone to form large crystals, it can be concluded that there is an excellent agreement between the alteration minerals occurring in nature and those predicted by geochemical modelling. Consequently, the modelled process is the main responsible for the production of the advanced argillic alteration assemblage of "Cave di Caolino" on Lipari Island. Since rock alteration is sustained by the H2SO4 solution produced by hydrothermal steam condensation, there is no need to invoke the involvement of SO2-HCl-HF-bearing magmatic fluids, in line with the absence of fluoride minerals.

Advanced argillic alteration at Cave di Caolino, Lipari, Aeolian Islands (Italy): Implications for the mitigation of volcanic risks and the exploitation of geothermal resources

Gennaro, Emanuela;Giuliani, Letizia;Iezzi, Gianluca;Radica, Francesco;Ventura, Guido;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Four sites in the western sector of Lipari Island with still active hydrothermal activity are here considered. The petrography (mesoscopic observations and XRPD) and geochemistry (major, minor and trace elements chemistry) of ten representative and extremely altered volcanic rocks were characterized. Two types of parageneses of altered rocks are discriminable, one rich in silicate phases (opal/cristobalite, montmorillonite, kaolinite, alunite and hematite) and one in sulphates (gypsum, plus minor amounts of anhydrite or bassanite). The altered silicate-rich rocks are rich in SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3 and H2O, and depleted in CaO, MgO, K2O and Na2O, while the sulphate-rich ones are extremely enriched in CaO and SO4 in comparison with local unaltered volcanic rocks. The content of many incompatible elements is similar in altered silicate-rich rocks and lower in sulphate-rich ones with respect to the pristine volcanic rocks; conversely, almost all REEs are markedly enriched in silicate-rich rocks and heavy REEs are enriched in sulphate-rich altered rocks compared to unaltered volcanic rocks. Reaction path modelling of basaltic andesite dissolution in local steam condensate predicts the production of amorphous-silica, anhydrite, goethite, and kaolinite (or smectites and saponites) as stable secondary minerals and alunite, jarosite, and jurbanite as ephemeral minerals. Considering possible post-depositional reactions and admitting that the presence of two distinct parageneses is apparent, since gypsum is prone to form large crystals, it can be concluded that there is an excellent agreement between the alteration minerals occurring in nature and those predicted by geochemical modelling. Consequently, the modelled process is the main responsible for the production of the advanced argillic alteration assemblage of "Cave di Caolino" on Lipari Island. Since rock alteration is sustained by the H2SO4 solution produced by hydrothermal steam condensation, there is no need to invoke the involvement of SO2-HCl-HF-bearing magmatic fluids, in line with the absence of fluoride minerals.
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
1-s2.0-S0048969723029546-main.pdf

Solo gestori archivio

Tipologia: PDF editoriale
Dimensione 6.14 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
6.14 MB Adobe PDF   Visualizza/Apri   Richiedi una copia

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11564/807234
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 0
  • Scopus 8
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 8
social impact