This study aimed to assess the physical characteristics of elite international soccer referees, compare them with other referee populations in the literature, and establish reference tolerance ellipses for the bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) point graph. Forty-one elite international soccer referees (age 38.8 ± 3.6 years) participated in the study. The participants underwent body composition assessments, including dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, BIVA, and somatotype. The Somatotype Attitudinal Distance (SAD), the two-sample Hotelling's T2 test and the Mahalanobis test were used to determine somatotype and bioelectrical vector differences with the literature. The average somatotype of the referees was a balanced mesomorph (2.8, 6.5, 2.8). Elite international referees significantly differed from other samples in the literature (SAD = 2.1, 2.6, 2.9 with respect to Zimbabwean, Brazilian, and South African referees, respectively). The bioelectrical vector was significantly different from the general population (T2 ≤ 76.6; F = 38.8; D = 1.44; p < 0.001) and athletes (T2 ≤ 25.3; F = 12.6; D = 0.8; p < 0.001). Somatotype values and tolerance ellipses from this study may be useful as a reference for developing training programs and improving the selection process of referees in soccer.

Morphological Characteristics of Elite International Soccer Referees: Somatotype and Bioelectrical Impedance Vector Analysis

Izzicupo, Pascal
Primo
;
2023-01-01

Abstract

This study aimed to assess the physical characteristics of elite international soccer referees, compare them with other referee populations in the literature, and establish reference tolerance ellipses for the bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) point graph. Forty-one elite international soccer referees (age 38.8 ± 3.6 years) participated in the study. The participants underwent body composition assessments, including dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, BIVA, and somatotype. The Somatotype Attitudinal Distance (SAD), the two-sample Hotelling's T2 test and the Mahalanobis test were used to determine somatotype and bioelectrical vector differences with the literature. The average somatotype of the referees was a balanced mesomorph (2.8, 6.5, 2.8). Elite international referees significantly differed from other samples in the literature (SAD = 2.1, 2.6, 2.9 with respect to Zimbabwean, Brazilian, and South African referees, respectively). The bioelectrical vector was significantly different from the general population (T2 ≤ 76.6; F = 38.8; D = 1.44; p < 0.001) and athletes (T2 ≤ 25.3; F = 12.6; D = 0.8; p < 0.001). Somatotype values and tolerance ellipses from this study may be useful as a reference for developing training programs and improving the selection process of referees in soccer.
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
jfmk-08-00100.pdf

accesso aperto

Tipologia: PDF editoriale
Dimensione 1.27 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
1.27 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11564/811911
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 1
  • Scopus 1
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? ND
social impact