This work explored Phyla nodiflora (L.) Greene as a potential source of the bioactive medicinal agent. In this aspect, methanol (PN-M) and dichloromethane (PN-D) extracts were prepared from the whole plant and evaluated for phytochemical composition (total bioactive contents, UHPLC-MS analysis, and HPLC-PDA polyphenolic quantification), biological (antioxidant and enzyme inhibition) potential and in-vivo toxicity. The PN-M was found to contain higher phenolic (26.08 mg GAE/g extract) and flavonoid (50.25 mg QE/g extract) contents which might correlate to the higher radical scavenging (DPPH: 52.94 mg TE/g extract; ABTS: 72.11 mg TE/g extract) and reducing power (FRAP: 71.96 mg TE/g extract; CUPRAC: 142.65 mg TE/g extract) antioxidant potential, as well as AChE (4.33 mg GALAE/g extract), tyrosinase (125.36 mg KAE/g extract), and amylase (1.86 mmol ACAE/g extract) inhibition activity of this extract. In contrast, the PN-D extract was found to be most active for phosphomolybdenum (1.30 mg TE/g extract) and metal chelation (54.84 mg EDTAE/g extract) assays in addition to BChE (4.70 mg GALAE/g extract) and glucosidase (0.62 mmol ACAE/g extract) enzyme inhibition activity. The PN-M extract on UHPLC-MS analysis revealed the tentative identification of 24 different secondary metabolites, most of which belonged to the flavonoid, glycoside, and terpenoid classes of phytochemicals. The polyphenolic composition of the extracts was appraised by HPLC-PDA. Seven phenolic compounds were identified in the extracts. PN-M was found to be rich in catechin (0.25 μg/extract) and 3-OH benzoic acid (0.64 μg/extract), while PN-D contained epicatechin (0.30 μg/extract), 3-OH-4-MeO benzaldehyde (0.21 μg/extract), and 2,3-Di-Meo benzoic acid (0.97 μg/extract) in higher amounts. The methanol extract was found to be non-toxic even at higher doses. Furthermore, the relationship between the phytochemicals and the tested enzymes was highlighted by molecular docking studies. In sum, this research showed that the studied extracts were effective as enzyme inhibitors and antioxidants, suggesting it would be worth investigating in more depth for further advanced studies to explore its pharmacological properties.

A comprehensive assessment of phytochemicals from Phyla nodiflora (L.) Greene as a potential enzyme inhibitor, and their biological potential: An in-silico, in-vivo, and in-vitro approach

M. Locatelli;
2023-01-01

Abstract

This work explored Phyla nodiflora (L.) Greene as a potential source of the bioactive medicinal agent. In this aspect, methanol (PN-M) and dichloromethane (PN-D) extracts were prepared from the whole plant and evaluated for phytochemical composition (total bioactive contents, UHPLC-MS analysis, and HPLC-PDA polyphenolic quantification), biological (antioxidant and enzyme inhibition) potential and in-vivo toxicity. The PN-M was found to contain higher phenolic (26.08 mg GAE/g extract) and flavonoid (50.25 mg QE/g extract) contents which might correlate to the higher radical scavenging (DPPH: 52.94 mg TE/g extract; ABTS: 72.11 mg TE/g extract) and reducing power (FRAP: 71.96 mg TE/g extract; CUPRAC: 142.65 mg TE/g extract) antioxidant potential, as well as AChE (4.33 mg GALAE/g extract), tyrosinase (125.36 mg KAE/g extract), and amylase (1.86 mmol ACAE/g extract) inhibition activity of this extract. In contrast, the PN-D extract was found to be most active for phosphomolybdenum (1.30 mg TE/g extract) and metal chelation (54.84 mg EDTAE/g extract) assays in addition to BChE (4.70 mg GALAE/g extract) and glucosidase (0.62 mmol ACAE/g extract) enzyme inhibition activity. The PN-M extract on UHPLC-MS analysis revealed the tentative identification of 24 different secondary metabolites, most of which belonged to the flavonoid, glycoside, and terpenoid classes of phytochemicals. The polyphenolic composition of the extracts was appraised by HPLC-PDA. Seven phenolic compounds were identified in the extracts. PN-M was found to be rich in catechin (0.25 μg/extract) and 3-OH benzoic acid (0.64 μg/extract), while PN-D contained epicatechin (0.30 μg/extract), 3-OH-4-MeO benzaldehyde (0.21 μg/extract), and 2,3-Di-Meo benzoic acid (0.97 μg/extract) in higher amounts. The methanol extract was found to be non-toxic even at higher doses. Furthermore, the relationship between the phytochemicals and the tested enzymes was highlighted by molecular docking studies. In sum, this research showed that the studied extracts were effective as enzyme inhibitors and antioxidants, suggesting it would be worth investigating in more depth for further advanced studies to explore its pharmacological properties.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11564/816232
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