Influenza is associated with a substantial health burden, especially in high-risk subjects such as older adults, frail individuals and those with underlying chronic diseases. In this review, we summarized clinical findings regarding the impact of influenza in vulnerable populations, highlighted the benefits of influenza vaccination in preventing severe illness and complications and reviewed the main evidence on the efficacy, effectiveness and safety of the vaccines that are best suited to older adults among those available in Italy. The adverse outcomes associated with influenza infection in elderly and frail subjects and those with underlying chronic diseases are well documented in the literature, as are the benefits of vaccination (mostly in older adults and in patients with cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and chronic lung disease). High-dose and adjuvanted inactivated influenza vaccines were specifically developed to provide enhanced immune responses in older adults, who generally have low responses mainly due to immunosenescence, comorbidities and frailty. These vaccines have been evaluated in clinical studies and systematic reviews by international immunization advisory boards, including the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. The high-dose vaccine is the only licensed influenza vaccine to have demonstrated greater efficacy versus a standard-dose vaccine in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza in a randomized controlled trial. Despite global recommendations, the vaccination coverage in high-risk populations is still suboptimal. All healthcare professionals (including specialists) have an important role in increasing vaccination rates.

Influenza vaccination for elderly, vulnerable and high-risk subjects: a narrative review and expert opinion

Consoli, Agostino
Secondo
;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Influenza is associated with a substantial health burden, especially in high-risk subjects such as older adults, frail individuals and those with underlying chronic diseases. In this review, we summarized clinical findings regarding the impact of influenza in vulnerable populations, highlighted the benefits of influenza vaccination in preventing severe illness and complications and reviewed the main evidence on the efficacy, effectiveness and safety of the vaccines that are best suited to older adults among those available in Italy. The adverse outcomes associated with influenza infection in elderly and frail subjects and those with underlying chronic diseases are well documented in the literature, as are the benefits of vaccination (mostly in older adults and in patients with cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and chronic lung disease). High-dose and adjuvanted inactivated influenza vaccines were specifically developed to provide enhanced immune responses in older adults, who generally have low responses mainly due to immunosenescence, comorbidities and frailty. These vaccines have been evaluated in clinical studies and systematic reviews by international immunization advisory boards, including the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. The high-dose vaccine is the only licensed influenza vaccine to have demonstrated greater efficacy versus a standard-dose vaccine in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza in a randomized controlled trial. Despite global recommendations, the vaccination coverage in high-risk populations is still suboptimal. All healthcare professionals (including specialists) have an important role in increasing vaccination rates.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11564/822989
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