This article provides an overview of MRI methods exploiting magnetic susceptibility properties of blood to assess cerebral oxygen metabolism, including the tissue oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2). The first section is devoted to describing blood magnetic susceptibility and its effect on the MRI signal. Blood circulating in the vasculature can have diamagnetic (oxyhemoglobin) or paramagnetic properties (deoxyhemoglobin). The overall balance between oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin determines the induced magnetic field which, in turn, modulates the transverse relaxation decay of the MRI signal via additional phase accumulation. The following sections of this review then illustrate the principles underpinning susceptibility-based techniques for quantifying OEF and CMRO2. Here, it is detailed whether these techniques provide global (OxFlow) or local (Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping - QSM, calibrated BOLD - cBOLD, quantitative BOLD - qBOLD, QSM+qBOLD) measurements of OEF or CMRO2, and what signal components (magnitude or phase) and tissue pools they consider (intravascular or extravascular). Validations studies and potential limitations of each method are also described. The latter include (but are not limited to) challenges in the experimental setup, the accuracy of signal modeling, and assumptions on the measured signal. The last section outlines the clinical uses of these techniques in healthy aging and neurodegenerative diseases and contextualizes these reports relative to results from gold-standard PET.

Cerebral oxygen metabolism from MRI susceptibility

Biondetti E.
Co-primo
;
2023-01-01

Abstract

This article provides an overview of MRI methods exploiting magnetic susceptibility properties of blood to assess cerebral oxygen metabolism, including the tissue oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2). The first section is devoted to describing blood magnetic susceptibility and its effect on the MRI signal. Blood circulating in the vasculature can have diamagnetic (oxyhemoglobin) or paramagnetic properties (deoxyhemoglobin). The overall balance between oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin determines the induced magnetic field which, in turn, modulates the transverse relaxation decay of the MRI signal via additional phase accumulation. The following sections of this review then illustrate the principles underpinning susceptibility-based techniques for quantifying OEF and CMRO2. Here, it is detailed whether these techniques provide global (OxFlow) or local (Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping - QSM, calibrated BOLD - cBOLD, quantitative BOLD - qBOLD, QSM+qBOLD) measurements of OEF or CMRO2, and what signal components (magnitude or phase) and tissue pools they consider (intravascular or extravascular). Validations studies and potential limitations of each method are also described. The latter include (but are not limited to) challenges in the experimental setup, the accuracy of signal modeling, and assumptions on the measured signal. The last section outlines the clinical uses of these techniques in healthy aging and neurodegenerative diseases and contextualizes these reports relative to results from gold-standard PET.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11564/824192
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