Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by motor dysfunctions, such as bradykinesia, rigidity, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and others. The pharmacological treatment of the disease is only symptomatic since, to date, there is no treatment to stop or slow PD. Currently, L-Dopa (LD) remains the gold standard therapy even though it undergoes peripheral metabolism causing several side effects, such as nausea, vomiting and orthostatic hypotension. Areas covered: This review is focused on recent developments in strategies involving prodrugs to enhance DA and/or LD absorption, their chemical and enzymatic stabilities, and selective targeting to the central nervous system. Expert opinion: The prodrug strategy remains one of the most promising approaches to improve pharmaceutical, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic properties of hydrophilic compounds, such as anti-Parkinson drugs (DA and LD). Prodrugs developed in recent years have demonstrated good pharmacokinetic profiles, affording a sustained release of LD and reducing its plasma level fluctuations. The development of new prodrugs that may reach the BBB unaltered and with a good ADME (Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination) profile and pharmacological efficacy represents an exciting challenge for medicinal chemists.

Advances in prodrug design for Parkinson's disease

Cacciatore, Ivana;Ciulla, Michele;Marinelli, Lisa;Eusepi, Piera;Di Stefano, Antonio
2018-01-01

Abstract

Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by motor dysfunctions, such as bradykinesia, rigidity, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and others. The pharmacological treatment of the disease is only symptomatic since, to date, there is no treatment to stop or slow PD. Currently, L-Dopa (LD) remains the gold standard therapy even though it undergoes peripheral metabolism causing several side effects, such as nausea, vomiting and orthostatic hypotension. Areas covered: This review is focused on recent developments in strategies involving prodrugs to enhance DA and/or LD absorption, their chemical and enzymatic stabilities, and selective targeting to the central nervous system. Expert opinion: The prodrug strategy remains one of the most promising approaches to improve pharmaceutical, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic properties of hydrophilic compounds, such as anti-Parkinson drugs (DA and LD). Prodrugs developed in recent years have demonstrated good pharmacokinetic profiles, affording a sustained release of LD and reducing its plasma level fluctuations. The development of new prodrugs that may reach the BBB unaltered and with a good ADME (Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination) profile and pharmacological efficacy represents an exciting challenge for medicinal chemists.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11564/687172
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